An A-list of bee books

Even though she grew up in a frugal rural family, my mother always believed that if a cookbook delivered just one great recipe, it was worth the price. After all, she would use that recipe countless times and perhaps pass it on to others.

Today, I feel the same way about bee books. If I get one snippet from a bee book that improves my skills or deepens my understanding of bees, then the book was worth both the time and the money.

In these modern times fraught with honey bee problems and native bee disappearance, there is an ever-expanding library to pick from. Here are a few of my current favorites for you to consider.

The Beekeepers’s Handbook, Fourth Edition by Diana Sammataro and Alphonse Avitabile. 2011. This is my first choice for an overall beginner how-to book. The sequence is logical, the explanations are clear and concise, and it gives you enough to get going without overwhelming your brain. Many clear diagrams, bulleted lists, and appendices. If you can buy only one beekeeping book, this is the one.

Bee Time: Lessons from the Hive by Mark L. Winson. 2014. This book is both a memoir of the author’s life and a dissection of the many disturbing aspects of a contemporary bee’s life—from Varroa mites to CCD. Winston’s love of honey bees shines through every word he writes, and he makes us think about how we might learn from the bees and become better stewards of our dwindling natural resources.

The Bee: A Natural History by Noah Wilson-Rich. 2014. It has always been my contention that understanding bees generally—all of them—makes one a better beekeeper. Conversely, you don’t need to be a beekeeper to enjoy the fascinating pas de deux between flower and bee. Not a beekeeping how-to, this book puts honey bees in the context of all bees and explains their relevance to our daily lives

Bee by Rose-Lynn Fisher, 2010. This is picture book for honey bee lovers. The photographs, taken with the aid of an electron microscope, reveal the honey bee and all her parts in stunning detail. Whether you are a beekeeper, gardener, photographer or just curious, this book is a joy. This is nothing like seeing the parts up close to understand how they all work together to pollinate our world.

California Bees and Blooms: A Guide for Gardeners and Naturalists by Gordon W. Frankie et al. 2014. You don’t have to be from California to appreciate this book. The book details the basic families of bees and the plants they like using colorful photos of both. It also explains the complex relationship between bees and flowers and explores ways to build better native bee habitat.

A Sting in the Tale: My Adventures with Bumblebees by Dave Goulson. 2014. Some books I don’t want to end, and this was one. It reads like a cross between a novel and an adventure story as it follows the author’s fascination with bumble bees from childhood to the founding of the Bumblebee Conservation Trust. Along the way you will learn more about bumbles than you ever thought possible.

*Click on book jackets for more information.

Rusty
HoneyBeeSuite

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How to feed syrup in winter

The following method of feeding syrup in winter was sent to me by Wayne Davidson of St Charles, Idaho. Although his climate is cold and the winters long, Wayne has been using this method successfully for three years.

The reason it works, I believe, is that the syrup is kept in an insulated compartment right above the cluster. The syrup is surrounded by wood chip insulation on three sides and foam insulation above. We know from experimentation (and logic) that the warmest part of the hive (aside from the cluster itself) is the area just above the cluster. The insulation traps the heat from the cluster and keeps the syrup warm enough for the bees to drink.

Here is a description of Wayne’s set-up in his own words:

  • I tried to capitalize on everything I could since our winters are long. First, I moved the hives to the south side of the house and set them close to benefit from radiant heat when the sun shines. I got this idea from the dog; he always napped here even in the winter months.

  • Some years we can have nighttime temps in the teens clear until April 21, and nothing growing until late May. So I wanted to feed the bees without causing stress. That’s when I started putting the top feeder on in the fall at the last inspection. It serves as a nice lid with a ventilation opening. I added wood chips/shavings, the type you get at the feed store for livestock, for a little insulation, but also to catch whatever moisture might be in the box.

  • I filled the pan with syrup and put the inner cover on followed by the foam insulation, and then the outer cover.

  • I fully realize that I am leaving a pan of water on top of the hive. My reasoning is, “So what if it freezes?” it can’t break anything, and when it thaws out it’s still there. Second, the bees don’t have to mess with it until it’s warm enough to explore.

  • Moisture was a worry at first, but not any more. If water evaporates it has a way out though the hole in the foam, and out the outer cover. I went to the pitched roof for the telescoping cover just for this reason. It provides an attic space that is always venting, winter and summer. (When I tried this set up with flat tops, they didn’t vent as well and some mold formed on the underside of the inner cover. Still, if any water condensed it would be on the inner cover and right above the pan or the shavings, and any drips still won’t fall on the bees.)

The results

  • The syrup never appeared to freeze. I admit I only checked the feeders on sunny days when the ambient temperature could be 10-15 F, but next to the house considerably warmer. If the syrup froze in the night it was thawed when I checked. Still opening the lid had little effect on the bees since they never were exposed directly to the cold air.

  • Last year I fed every two or three weeks weather permitting. While some colonies ate everything I gave them, and were often begging for more when I opened the lid, some didn’t touch it until spring when they started laying again.

  • While there was some mold on the inner covers that didn’t vent well as I mentioned, I saw no evidence of mold, or dampness of any kind in the hive just below the feeder in the spring on the first inspection.

  • In the photos you will notice something different in the pan. This year I thought I would warm some honey that had crystallized and feed it in the feeder. Well this colony didn’t eat it very fast and now it is setting up again. When I took this picture the honey was soft enough I could easily scoop it with my finger, but it wouldn’t flow. I will go back to just syrup in the pans.

  • This is my third winter doing this and I still like the results. I have used a commercial top feeder, but I only fill half of it since they are so big and then fill the other half with shavings.

For years I’ve said you can’t feed syrup in winter, but now I see that is not entirely true. Wayne’s system takes advantage of a number of factors: he uses good in-hive insulation, he positions the hives in the sun with a wind break, and he sets the syrup directly above the bees.

Good job. Thank you, Wayne.

Rusty
HoneyBeeSuite

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Wayne’s hives are on the sunny side of the house, which provides warmth and a wind break. © Wayne Davidson.
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The feeder is in the purple box below the inner cover. © Wayne Davidson.
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A thick layer of foam insulation is placed above the inner cover. © Wayne Davidson.
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The gabled roof provided the best ventilation. I love that the vent closure is hinged. © Wayne Davidson.
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The feeder tray is surrounded by wood chips which trap warm air and absorb excess moisture. In this photo, partially crystallized honey is in the tray. © Wayne Davidson.
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The feeder can be refilled without chilling the bees: just pour in the syrup and replace the top pieces. © Wayne Davidson.

A song of the bees

Be prepared for a feel-good moment. I first met Mark Luterra and his partner, Liz, two years ago in Corvallis, Oregon. At the time, Mark took me through his apiary and prepared a list of beekeepers I should meet on my visit to the Willamette Valley. I could see Mark was intelligent and passionate about his work, but I was clueless about his hidden talents until this morning when I played this video.

Mark writes:

“We finally got around to finishing this project. It started as a song in February 2012, hoping that our first two beehives would make it through the winter (they didn’t…). The music video idea came in April 2013, and I did most of the video editing in the Denver airport. Then we moved, and the bees moved, and the project was mostly forgotten until now.”

I listened to his song four or fives times this morning and have been humming ever since. The lyrics are printed below, and if you would like to know more about Mark, he writes a blog called Musings from Mark that centers around nature, sustainability, energy, agriculture, and mead.

I hope you enjoy the video as much as I did. Let me know what you think!

Rusty
HoneyBeeSuite

A Song of the Bees

by Markael Luterra
Published on Jan 2, 2015

Lyrics:

Sing a song of the bees
Thousands as one
Led by a queen

Bees by the thousands they are workin together
Bringin nectar and pollen whatever the weather
Gotta keep the queen fed layin two eggs a minute
For the next generation, the sky’s the limit

Coevolution we see
Flowers and bees
Nectar for fertile seeds

We pop off the top to inspect the brood
White larvae and eggs mean that things are all good
We try to avoid the end with the stinger
But every now and then we still get stung on the finger
Stung on the finger!

Put some ice on that sting
Cool down the burn
Easing the suffering

Got varroa and nosema and now tracheal mites
Its a mess with all these pests we might just give up the fight
But no disease will kill my bees cause I take care of my hives
And through the winter into April they will still be alive
Still be alive
My bees are alive!

(Piano interlude)

In the summer they’ll be haulin in the honey like a beast
And then in August we’ll collect it and we’ll have a great feast
With lots of mead and pie and honeycomb and cookies too
And we’ll still have enough to give honey to you
Honey to you

(Flute interlude)

Sing a song of the bees
Thousands as one
Led by a queen
Coevolution we see
Flowers and bees
Nectar for fertile seeds.

The crocuses are popping

Last fall, after reading my post about planting spring crocuses for bees, David Robertson of western Georgia nearly bought out the local feed store. He took the corms home and, judging from the photos, made his wife and son-in-law do the work while he took pictures. Makes sense.

Now, in mid-January, the crocuses are already popping through the soil and the honey bees are ready. I thought you might enjoy the photos—a sure reminder that spring is coming. And Dave, don’t forget that next time we want to see those flowers with the bees inside.

Rusty
HoneyBeeSuite

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Planting the crocuses on the sunny side of the barn. © David Robertson.
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The leaves are already a few inches tall. © David Robertson.
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David’s apiary. © David Robertson.
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The honey bees are restless just thinking about all those crocuses. © David Robertson.

 

Last thoughts on a lost colony

So many responses! And theories galore—everything from tracheal mites to alien abduction. I promised to give my own opinion on the cause of death, but please remember that there is a lot of experience reflected in the posted answers. My own opinion is just that, so you should not discount what others have to say.

Several of you wished you had more information about the history of the colony, its size, mite treatments, last queen sighting, etc. I agree those things would be helpful, but knowing nothing is a common starting place. Detectives in a real crime scene usually begin with no history, and hive detectives often have the same handicap.

The final cause of death

My own conclusion is that the final cause of death—the thing that took out the last tiny cluster—was cold. As you know, a cluster of bees stays warm by vibrating their wing muscles to create heat, and the warm bees on the inside rotate positions with the cold bees on the outside. Aaron’s tiny cluster is too small to have an inside and an outside, so all the bees are going to be cold.

Once the bees become chilled, they can’t move, which renders it impossible to retrieve food even if it is close. So you could argue starvation, but in this case I’d say the two conditions were related: the bee cluster was too small to stay warm or to get stored food.

The real cause of death

Nevertheless, the real cause of death occurred much earlier. The few bees shown in the photos were just the hangers on; they were doomed to die and it was just a matter of time.

Trying to figure out why the colony collapsed in the first place is much more difficult. My thought was that the queen died in fall. I say this because there was a fair amount of honey left in the hive. The colony had to be robust enough to defend itself from robbers and yellowjackets right up until the end of flight season.

If the queen had died (or stopped laying) earlier, the colony may have weakened before cold weather arrived, giving predators a chance to rob the hive. If nothing else, Aaron’s other hive would have cleaned it out. But based on the photos, I didn’t see any ragged comb which would indicate robbers or yellowjackets.

The colony had been fairly vigorous at one point because the brood area was large in some of the frames (based on darkened comb) and because there was a fair bit of honey collected in a year when honey collection was not generally good here in western Washington.

Too late for queen replacement

I concluded from this that it was a fairly normal colony that was doing fine until it went queenless in the fall. I assume the queen failed too late in the year for the colony to raise a replacement or, even if they did, it was too late to get her mated.

This leads to the next question: why did the queen die (or stop laying)? Of course, I don’t know. But a lot of queens die in the fall. In my opinion, queens with short lifespans are the result of genetic weakness due to inbreeding. Over and over, I find that queens raised locally outperform and outlive queens shipped from large-scale queen farms. I believe local queens are better adapted and have a more robust gene pool.

But I don’t know the origin of Aaron’s queens, so that is just a blind guess based on seeing lots of production queens die in the fall for no apparent reason.

The Varroa connection

Now, obviously, the bees could have died for other reasons. Based on Aaron’s testimony that he saw no K-wing or deformed wings, at first I thought Varroa was not the primary cause of death. On the other hand, this looks like a classic case of death by Varroa.

Varroa-infected colonies frequently die in the fall as the ratio of mites to bees increases. Also, colonies that collapse from Varroa frequently contain only a few dead bees but lots of honey. The bees that are not infected continue to remove the dead and defend the hive while the colony population dwindles. Although I didn’t see any guanine deposits in the photos, it’s possible they didn’t show up due to the camera angle.

Tracheal mites

I eliminated tracheal mites mostly because they aren’t very common at the moment. In fact, last fall Jerry Bromenshenk did an informal survey of beekeepers from all over North America and found that tracheal mites are rare—even the testing labs are seeing few cases. Many people think that all the miticides used against Varroa may have weakened the tracheal mite population to the point where they aren’t much of a problem.

However, they still occur in certain areas and there is nothing to say that newer, better, stronger tracheal mites will not show up once they develop resistance to all the commonly used miticides. This would not surprise me one bit. If you (Aaron) are worried about your other hive, you can send a sample to a lab for analysis, or I can do it for you.

Mold grows as the bees die

I have to agree with Aaron that I don’t see the mold as cause for concern. Mold is a result of colony death, not a cause of it. Also, there wasn’t much. If ventilation had been a problem, I wouldn’t be surprised to see mold covering every frame. But here, isolated spots of mold are growing on damp pollen and on dead bees. This occurred because once the colony died, the circulation caused by the bees’ wings stopped, and heat generated by the bees’ bodies disappeared. With no heat and no air movement, mold is inevitable.

No “for sure” answer

For what it’s worth, my conclusion is the colony died from a combination of a failed queen and a Varroa mite infestation. It’s very possible that the mite load caused the queen to die, although she could have been offed by poor genetics, injury, or disease. It’s also possible the colony would have died from the mites even if the queen were healthy.

The colony might have been saved by timely Varroa treatments of some type, and a fall brood nest inspection to make sure the queen was present and laying. With today’s queen problems, the fall inspection is imperative.

Again, I want to thank Aaron for allowing me to use his analysis and photos—what a gift! Some of us are reluctant to have our misfortunes pasted all over the internet so, Aaron, you are much appreciated.

Rusty
HoneyBeeSuite