Queenless or clueless?

It happens. You open your hive and you can’t find your queen. Worse, you see no young brood—no larvae, no eggs. Several things are possible:

  • Your queen is dead.
  • Your queen is failing and is being superseded.
  • Your queen has swarmed.
  • You have a queen that hasn’t started laying.
  • You have a virgin queen.

At this point, you wonder what to do. You could buy a queen, but maybe you have a virgin queen or a newly mated queen and you just didn’t see her. Or maybe you can’t find her because she’s out on a mating flight this very minute. You hate the idea of adding a new queen, only to have them duke it out later. So what do you do?

The very best and least risky thing you can do is add a frame or two of mixed brood from another hive. By mixed brood, I mean brood in various stages of development from eggs to larvae to capped pupae. Here’s why:

  • A good supply of eggs and recently hatched larvae means the colony can raise a queen on their own if they need one. And if they don’t need one, no harm is done.
  • Brood, especially larvae, give off pheromones that reduce the likelihood of laying workers even if no queen is present.
  • If a queen needs to be raised, the capped brood and older larvae will supply the colony with new workers in the meantime.

As you can see, the colony—whether queenless or not—has everything to gain and nothing to lose with an infusion of brood. But what about the hive you stole from? Are you running a risk of weakening that colony?

A little judgment is useful when stealing brood. If you steal it from a populous and thriving hive, it won’t make any difference as long as you don’t accidentally take the queen. Shake all the bees from the frames you take to make sure you don’t have her.

If the hive you steal from is of only moderate strength, take frames that contain mostly eggs. The reason is that the donor colony hasn’t spent a lot of time, energy, or resources on a frame of eggs and it won’t take long for the colony to replace it. Larvae and capped brood, on the other hand, have taken a great deal of effort. So, if you are at all concerned about the strength of the donor colony, stick to stealing eggs—it’s like taking pennies instead of dollars.

The beauty of this system is that you don’t have to know whether you have a queen or not, or whether she’s a virgin or not. If they need a queen they can raise one. And if they don’t, you’ve done no harm.

A final thought: whenever I write something like this I realize there are beekeepers with only one hive. I can’t think of anything trickier. If you have only one hive—or if you haven’t yet started beekeeping—consider getting a second colony. It doesn’t just double your options; it multiplies them many times over.


The queen can quickly replace lost eggs. Flickr photo by steveburt1947.
The queen can quickly replace lost eggs. Flickr photo by steveburt1947.



Wow! This is exactly what we did last week with one of my friend’s hives that was packed with honey but had no brood. He re-queened because the hive had a mean attitude. Guess they liked their mean queen and didn’t like the nice new one.

But my question is, if I’m checking hives and see the queen, could I mark her? What’s the stuff you use, and how can I keep from doing her or the bees any harm? It would save so much anxiety. Thanks.


RUSTY! You seem to know when I experience a queen loss. Thanks for the Great advice!


The only time this doesn’t work is when you transfer the frame over, they produce a new queen and then it rains for three weeks solid. Your lovely new queen can’t get out to mate and becomes a drone layer. You bump her off and try again with another frame, but by this time your hive population has shrunk, you have few nurse bees and the weather’s still wet and cold, so they can’t keep the brood warm enough and the queen cells they produce never hatch out.

Eventually you end up combining your weak queenless hive with the stronger one. Happened to us in London this year; we’ve had the most unbelievably ridiculous weather, including the rainiest April since records began. Even now it’s June the rain and winds aren’t over. In hindsight we’d have been better off buying in a mated queen—but we didn’t know the summer was going to be this useless!


Another reason for no eggs—at least here in the UK—is that you have just put in a treatment for varroa. When I had my first bees and treated as dealer recommended I was quite nonplussed by this. Established beekeepers will know but new ones reading may not. Of course the beauty of your advice (frame of eggs from elsewhere) is that it does no harm, but the new beekeeper may be the one who only has one hive. Great post as usual.


Good point. I hadn’t thought of that possibility.


Good article Rusty! I sent your link to our beginner beeks to absorb.


Thanks so much, Charlie!


So, can I mark my queen?


Hey Rusty, please help me with this problem.

1 ) I have inspected my three bees and i have seen that one of them is full with honey and there is no place for the queen to lay eggs ? ( What should i do ? )

2 ) One of them is not eating sugar syrup like others? And i have not seen the queen there ? Is there any problem ? What should i Do?

3 ) Someone told me that it is not OK to feed my bees with Sugar syrup every Day with a mixture 2:1. ( is that correct ? )

Thanks, i hope you will help me soon so it will not be too late.

With regards Dardan :)



1. I don’t know where you are writing from, but if you are going into winter don’t worry about having no room. The queen won’t be laying any eggs for awhile and, by the time she is ready, many cells will be empty.

2. Sometimes real small colonies don’t take the sugar. Check the size; if is real small, combine it with another hive.

3. You can feed 2:1 syrup until they stop taking it. They will stop taking it when it gets colder.


Hello Rusty,

I spend a lot of time flipping through your site and appreciate it so much. As a new beekeeper, I find the information very valuable.

We have 2 hives and are going into a South Ontario winter. The one hive seems to being doing well and the second one has been a wealth of learning. The first queen was unmated. Replaced her and all seemed well until about 3 weeks ago. We noticed a significant amount of drone and very little worker brood. I was concerned so asked a much more experienced keeper to come and look. He agreed that we needed a new queen but told us to wait until next spring. (It was a rainy cool spring here so apparently many queens were poorly mated.) Against my gut feeling we chose to accept this advice.

Yesterday I was out and now I am thinking the hive is toast! So many dead bees. When I smoked, several wasps and lady bugs came out. Most of the syrup is gone but the hive is lighter (robbing must be going on). Many of those drone have emerged and there are very few workers. Some dead brood (perhaps chilled because of the cool nights and not enough workers to keep them warm???). Oh my gosh!

So the question is —do I just let it go and start again next spring a little wiser? Do I try to re-queen now even though there is much doubt they could get in enough stored for the winter? Try and save what I can and add the two hives together if possible (I certainly don’t want all that drone and it may be very difficult to get the rest of the wasps out and I think the brood is dead.) I am feeling a bit overwhelmed!
Any input would be appreciated.

Thank you,



Okay, where to begin? First piece of advice: always follow your gut. You know your bees better than anyone else. Plus, you know more about beekeeping than you are giving yourself credit for, so next time, run with it.

I can’t imagine why anyone would tell you to hang on to a queen that is laying drones but few workers. I wonder where he thought replacement brood was going to come from throughout the winter months? Or the early spring? It mystifies me.

I agree that the hive is toast. Yellowjackets walking out of a hive is never a good sign, and a hive getting lighter instead of heavier . . . well, you know.

With so little population, and so few stores, it is unlikely a new queen could pull it out now. There just aren’t the workers needed to keep things warm, let alone raise brood. If you want to try to save the workers, you could combine with the help of a queen excluder to delete the drones. But if the hive is full of yellow jackets, I wouldn’t do that either. Although it is sad, it may be best to just let it go.


Thank you Rusty. Hopefully i need never repeat the mistakes I’ve made this first year!

Michael Lowe

I inspected my three hives two days ago. I found that one was doing very well, one was doing fairly well, and one was not doing well at all. The latter had lots of empty cells, no larvae, no capped brood, no sign of a queen, and one supersedure cell. I hope I have identified why my bees have been very aggressive in my backyard – i.e. the one hive is queenless.

In a similar situation last year I ordered a new queen. I decided not to do that this time. I hope that the one supersedure cell will indeed work. However, just in case, I went to the very good hive and removed one frame of eggs, larva and capped brood, plus some honey. I inserted it into the weak hive. This evening I logged onto your site to see if you had posted anything about this sort of thing. I am gratified to see that I happened upon something that you recommend. Makes me feel a little bit better. Now I wait, with fingers crossed.



I use this technique often, and it usually works. Once in a while, if a colony is too weak, they will fail to raise a queen . . . but that is the exception. Let me know if they succeed.

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