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A time for every purpose: temporal castes in honey bees

Besides having two physical castes, honey bees also have several temporal castes. Physical castes are based on morphological differences—in other words, the structure of individuals in each group is different. For example, you only need to glance at a queen and a worker to see they are dissimilar. Temporal castes, on the other hand, are […] Read more

Native bees should not be managed like farm animals

Talk of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) tends to bring out two groups of extremists—the group that believes the demise of honey bees will completely destroy our ecosystem and the group that says, “Good riddance, honey bees are not native anyway.” It is true that honey bees are not native to the Americas. If all the […] Read more

Honey refractometers measure moisture content

Honey refractometers are used by beekeepers and honey packers to measure the moisture content of honey. Technically, refractometers measure the refractive index of a substance. Explanation: Light travels at different speeds through different materials. The refractive index is just a comparison between two numbers: the speed of light through a vacuum and the speed of […] Read more