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Physics for beekeepers: heat transfer in sugar syrup

Honey bees can elevate their thoracic (core) temperature by exercising their muscles and generating heat. However, below an air temperature of about 57-59°F (14-15°C) an individual bee can soon become immobile if she doesn’t work hard to stay warm. Surely you’ve seen one on a cold landing board—alive but barely able to take a step. […] Read more