queen bees

Make it easy to find your queen bee: never struggle again

Tips for finding your queen bee

Before you tear into your hive, disturbing the bees and disrupting their home, think about your mission. Most times, we don’t need to see our queen up close and personal, we only need to know she is alive, well, and laying a gazillion eggs.

In many cases, the brood nest can tell you everything you need to know. Eggs last only about three days, so if you see orderly rows of eggs, one to a cell, you can be fairly certain that all is well with the queen. At the very least, you know you had a queen within the last three days.

Failing that, the sight of very young larvae—the kind you can barely see at the bottom of a cell—tells you the brood is roughly four to five days old. It follows, then, that a queen was present in the last 4 to 5 days. Most likely, she is still there.

Older larvae indicate she was okay in the more distant past, perhaps up to nine days prior. Basically, the younger the brood, the more assured you can be of the queen’s presence. With older brood, you become less certain.

When you must find your queen

Although clues are usually enough, sometimes you simply must find your queen. Perhaps you want to split your hive and need to know where she is. Or perhaps you want to mark her, sequester her for a brood break, or even replace her. In such cases, you need to find her no matter how difficult it seems.

Although marking a queen helps, numbered tags can fall off and painted markings can wear away or become too scratched to see. And don’t forget, your queen could have left with a swarm when you weren’t paying attention. It happens. I have captured a number of swarms with marked queens even though I don’t mark my own.

Beekeeping is all about responding to situations as they arise, so some years you may not need to locate a single queen. In other years, you are looking for one constantly, or so it seems.

Practice makes perfect

“Perfect” is probably an overstatement because most of us have days when we gave up after several unsuccessful attempts at finding a queen. Nevertheless, it does get easier with practice.

If you search for queens often, you will develop your own style of queen spotting, and new beekeepers will watch you in amazement. The secret is learning how to look.

If they only wore little crowns, they would be easier to find.
If they only wore little crowns, they would be easier to find.

Start with the outer frames

Start your search by removing one of the outer frames. Scan it quickly—one side and then the other, before setting it aside. This gives you some room to work and makes it less likely that you will “roll” the queen as you inspect the rest. Although it is possible to find your queen on an end frame, it is rare. Usually, she will stay close to the center on a frame that contains some brood.

After the first frame is set aside, remove the next frame by sliding it away from the neighboring frame and lifting it gently. Scan one side and then the other. Work quickly because queens prefer to stay out of the sun. If you are working with your back to the sun, and the sunlight hits the frame you are inspecting, she may slip to the other side. She can do this lightning-fast while you flip the frame multiple times. Queens may look large and complacent but slow, they are not.

After inspecting each frame, slide it into the empty space left by the previous frame, being careful not the place the inspected frames too close to the uninspected ones. Too close and the queen might crossover to the already-inspected side.

Where she’s likely to be

Once you get to the edge of the brood nest, it gets harder to spot the queen simply because more stuff is in the way—more brood cells, more workers, more drones, more activity. In spite of all the commotion, the queen is more likely to be in the center of the brood nest—right where she’s hardest to spot.

Remember that queens are usually larger than workers, but sometimes the difference is slight. Queens can sometimes be accompanied by a retinue of attendants, but not always. A queen’s legs tend to splay out to the side, but hers may be hidden beneath other bees. A large bald spot on the thorax and a long pointy abdomen are indicative but may not be obvious in a busy brood nest.

Scan for the unexpected

When I’m scanning a frame, I don’t look at individual bees but I look for something different, something that doesn’t quite fit the pattern. I go pretty fast, trying not to focus on individual bees. Instead, I just search for the “thing that doesn’t belong.”

The process reminds me of those hidden image puzzles: if you try too hard, you won’t see the difference. Just let your eyes trail across the frame, and be on the alert for anything unusual.

For some practice and a lot of fun, try the book QueenSpotting by Hilary Kearney. It is chockfull of foldout photographs sorted by difficulty. All you have to do is spot the queen.

Affiliate Disclosure: As an Amazon Associate, I may earn commissions from qualifying purchases from Amazon.com.

Maintain a pattern

It helps to have a scanning pattern, one you use on each frame. Some people like to scan the edges first, and some like to start in the middle and work toward the outside. There are no rules here, just do what is comfortable.

Personally, I start in the upper left corner and scan across the top. Then I drop down a couple of inches and scan in the reverse direction in a zigzag pattern from top to bottom. After the last scan, I flip the frame up and zigzag in the same pattern on the opposite side, starting in the upper left corner again. I use the same zigzag pattern, even though the frame is now upside down.

Stay over the brood box

Always hold the frames over the brood box while you are scanning. If a queen should fall off the frame—and yes, it happens—you want her to fall back into the brood box, not into the grass or on the ground where you are standing.

Check both sides of each frame, replacing each (except the first) in the hive after you’ve scanned. You can go through the frames a second time if you don’t succeed on the first pass, but quit and close the hive if the second try doesn’t work. After twice through, the bees need time to calm down and restore order. You can try again on another day.

Never trust a queen

After scanning multiple times, I have found a queen on the hive cover, in the grass, on my arm, and sunning herself on the hive stand. Never, ever assume you know where the queen isn’t. Be careful when messing with them, pay attention, and don’t let yourself be distracted. As I remind people, it’s hard on the ego to lose a mind game to an insect. And it’s especially bad if you end up killing her by accident.

Honey Bee Suite

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  • THANK YOU for telling all us new keepers that it really is ok not to see the queen. Not sure there will come a day when I stop thinking myself as new. I will grant you there will come a day when I hope to be able to spot her easily, especially if I think/know I’ve got supersedure cells but right now I am always happy just to see fresh eggs and tight brood patterns.

    • I know. That was my early clue, especially when as a novice beekeeper I would see a drone and get excited. Wings on drones and workers cover most of the back of their abdomen. Not so with the queen, whose wings only extend about half the length of their abdomen, giving the appearance of ‘tiny wings.’

  • I heard that if you real quick scan the frame directly in front of the frame you just took out you can often spot the queen there. So I tried it. It does work! This is good to use in addition to the ones you mentioned in your post.

    Nice article. Thanks, Rusty

  • Rusty, is there a way to call the queen to come to me? Like maybe a sound I can play back on my phone speaker that will get her to come running to it? For example the piping or tooting sound ??

  • Rusty, a finer point from my observations of swarmed and artificially split colonies.

    If you see the eggs in the colony the queen was there a lot more recently than 3 days. The reason for saying that is any time your colony swarms or loses the queen, the first thing the remaining workers do is get rid of most all tiny brood or eggs, almost within a day of her departure. When we open a swarmed hive and see no eggs (just capped brood) we assume the hive swarmed at least 6 days ago. Nope, not so, the bees simply clean up brood with least time and nutrients investment. Try to make a split with open brood, eggs and an unhatched queen cell (or even a virgin queen) and then examine brood after a few days. Most but the oldest of it will have been cannibalized, regardless of honey availability. When we make a split, all open brood and eggs remain with the old queen and only capped frames and nurses go with the split.

    All of that only to say that lack of eggs is not always an indication that the queen has been gone for more than 3 days. Go figure.

  • And then again, there are fainting queens which I learned about a couple of years ago. When I mention it to others they just stare in amazement and they give me the “You’re kidding, right?” look…

    Average Joe Beekeeper
    Parker, CO

    • Naomi,

      Yes, that’s true, but like I wrote in the post, “Although marking a queen helps, numbered tags can fall off and painted markings can wear away or become too scratched to see. And don’t forget, your queen could have left with a swarm when you weren’t paying attention.”

  • Far more important than seeing the queen, is how is her laying pattern. Large sections of capped brood, or spotty, uneven with many gaps. That usually means you have a problem

  • Hi Rusty,

    This is my third time trying to write this! I am a new beekeeper from New Egypt, New Jersey. Anyhow, I have so much to write. However, it will all disappear on me again. I just want to say taking pictures works for me! We could not find our queen after 3 attempts. My mentor (we just bought our nuc from him and I’m not sure he knows he is my mentor yet, BUT HE IS! Lol) had said please send some pictures to see how the girls are doing. New nuc! It’s only 2.5 weeks old. Last minute decision long story! Anyhow, I want to write the story but I’ll be beginning brand new again if I do! Lol. I live on a farm and we have the worst time here with internet and phone signals. Ugh! Thank you Rusty for so much useful information; you have taken me far. I love your style of writing or should i say your personality.Thank you for so many laughs!!!

    Take pictures and if you didn’t find her go make a nice cup of tea, coffee, or whatever you enjoy and enlarge each frame. I have done this 4 times including last summer and 3 out of 4 times there she was in a picture. Twice she was on the third frame in! It is very early so forgive me if none of this makes sense.

    • Lynn,

      Thank you for the nice compliment. I’ve never thought of photographs as a way to help find a queen, but it makes sense. And standing in front of a photo is less intimidating than standing in front of a live hive. However, unless you need to do something with the queen, you usually don’t need to find her. If she’s there, evidence of her will be everywhere. On the other hand, finding her is good practice for the day you do need to find and capture her for some reason.

      Thanks for the good tip. I learn so much from new beekeepers!

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