Beekeeping dictionary: an open hardcover book on a table.

A beekeeping dictionary: helpful words from bee science and beekeeping

Once you know the beekeeping words, the rest is easy

This beekeeping dictionary contains terms frequently used by beekeepers and melittologists. The words come from various disciplines, including beekeeping, entomology, environmental science, biology, chemistry, and botany. Use the comment section below if you would like to add another word.


abdomen: the posterior segment of the bee containing the honey stomach, stomach, intestines, reproductive organs, and stinger

ABJ: abbr. American Bee Journal.

abscond: when an entire colony abandons its hive

absconding swarm: a swarm composed of an entire colony of bees that has abandoned its hive because of disease, predators, or another real or perceived threat

acaricide: a chemical designed to kill arachnids such as mites.

acarine disease: the condition caused by an infestation of tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi.

acid board (fume board): a hive cover designed to hold bee repellent. A beekeeper places the saturated board atop the stack of honey supers to drive bees out of the supers before harvesting.

acnestis: The acnestis is “The section of an animal’s skin that it cannot reach in order to scratch itself, usually the space between the shoulder blades.” (Wikipedia) The acnestis in honey bees is the place on the thorax where the bee cannot reach the pollen stuck on its back. After the bee swipes away most of the pollen with its legs, the remaining pollen looks like an hourglass.

acute exposure: a single exposure to a substance or a short-term exposure, usually lasting less than 24 hours.

AFB: abbr. American foulbrood

Africanized: refers to bees that are genetic descendants of the African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata. We know them from their aggressiveness, frequent swarming, and usurpation of other colonies.

afterswarm: a secondary or tertiary swarm that issues after the first (primary) swarm of the season. These swarms are usually smaller than the primary swarm and may contain one or more virgin queens.

AHB: abbr. Africanized honey bee

AI: abbr. active ingredient

alarm pheromone: a banana-like scent emitted by honey bees when they become alarmed or when they sting. The scent warns sister bees about the danger and its location, causing defensive behavior.

alcohol wash: a method for separating varroa mites from their host honey bees in order to estimate mite loads. The test kills both the bees and the mites.

alighting board (landing board): a horizontal surface just below the hive entrance where bees may land or congregate.

ambrosia: see bee bread

American foulbrood: a fatal disease of larval honey bees caused by the spore-forming bacteria Paenibacillus larvae

amino acid: an organic compound composed of an amine group and a carboxyl group. The amino acids are the “building blocks” of proteins.

Amm: abbr: Apis mellifera mellifera; the European black bee

anaphylaxis: an acute allergic reaction to an antigen. Bee stings cause anaphylaxis in some sensitive individuals.

anemophilous: pollinated by the wind

annual: a plant that lives only one growing season

antenna (pl. antennae): one of the two long, thin sensory organs on the bee’s head involved in taste and smell

anther: a sac-like component of a flower where pollen grains arise; part of the stamen

apiarist: beekeeper

apiculture: a formal word for beekeeping, often having a scientific or commercial connotation. The word derives from apis, the Latin term for bee.

apiary: a place where beekeepers keep and manage bee hives

Apis cerana: the scientific name for the Asian honey bee

Apis dorsata: the scientific name for the giant honey bee

Apis florea: the scientific name for the small honey bee

Apis mellifera: the scientific name for the European honey bee. The word mellifera means honey carrier. For derivation, see: Latin for beekeepers.

APU: abbr. Apis production unit (worker bee).


bee beard: a swarm of bees hanging from a person’s face that looks like a beard. Beekeepers can form bee beards by affixing a queen cage containing a fertile queen to a person’s skin, causing the bees to gather there.

bearding: bearding occurs when bees cluster on the outside of their hive, usually because of excessive heat or overcrowding in their hive

bee bread: pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions and stored in the comb for later use as brood food

bee escape: a one-way passage often inserted between the honey supers and the brood chamber, used to clear the honey super of bees before the honey supers are removed from the hive.

bee glue: propolis

bee gum: a hive made from a hollow log

bee-haver: A derogatory epithet for a person who owns bees but who lacks essential beekeeping skills and knowledge.

bee hive: a man-made structure for housing honey bees

beekeeper: a person who keeps bees

bee louse: an insect, Braula coeca, frequently found in honey bee hives

bee moth: a general term used for either of two species of wax moths.

bee nest: a place where bees raise their young. It may be large and contain many individuals, as in honey bees or bumble bees. Or the nest may be small and contain just a few eggs, as in most of the solitary bees. Nests may be built in hollow cavities either above and below ground, depending on the species. See brood nest.

bee tree: a hollow tree containing one or more colonies of bees.

bee yard: an apiary.

beeswax: a substance secreted by four pairs of ventral glands in the bee abdomen that is molded to form combs and cappings.

biennial: a plant that lives through two growing seasons before it sets seed and dies.

biodiversity: The relative abundance and variety of plant and animal species and ecosystems within a particular habitat.

bivoltine: insects having two generations per year, usually one that is completed in summer and one that overwinters

brood: all immature bees in a hive, including the eggs, larvae, and pupae; eggs and larvae are in open cells, pupae are in wax-covered cells

brood chamber: the place in the hive where the brood is being raised, consisting of one or more hive bodies

brood comb: any comb in the hive that contains brood; multiple combs of brood make up the brood chamber

brood food: glandular secretions of nurse bees that are used to feed larvae and, to a lesser extent, to feed the queen, drones, and foragers

brood nest: the area in a hive devoted to brood rearing. The nest is egg-shaped or spherical. In cold areas, it may be taller and less wide (to limit heat loss), and in warm areas, it may be wider and less tall (to encourage heat loss).


candy plug: a piece of fondant or marshmallow placed in one end of a queen cage in order to delay the queen’s release

capped brood: brood that is covered with a wax capping, usually composed of bees in the late larval stage and pupal stage.

capped honey: honey that has been dehydrated to the proper moisture content and covered with wax

cappings: wax coverings used by the bees to seal either pupae or honey, however, the term usually refers to the cappings that cover honey

cavity tree: a tree that contains one or more hollowed out holes in the main trunk. The holes (or cavities) are potential nesting sites for honey bees and some wasp species.

cell: a hexagonal compartment in a honey bee comb used for rearing brood or storage of pollen and honey

central nervous system: the part of the nervous system which includes the brain and main ganglia.

chilled brood: brood (eggs, larvae, or pupae) that have died because of exposure to cold temperatures

chocolate brood: capped brood [origin: southeastern U.S.].

chorion: the membrane covering a bee egg.

clear-cut: an area of forest land from which all the trees have been harvested. Clear-cuts can provide a rich source of wildflowers and nesting opportunities for native bee species.

cluster: a group of bees clinging together to maintain temperatures inside the hive. The cluster expands as the seasonal temperature increases.

cocoon: the protective covering around the pupae

cold way: when frames in the brood box are perpendicular to the hive opening

coleoptera: an order of insects that includes the beetles, weevils, and fireflies

colony: a community of bees composed of one queen and many workers. In the spring and summer, it also includes drones. See hive.

comb: an interconnected group of wax cells

competition: struggle among bees and other insects for limited resources such as nesting sites, nesting materials, nectar, pollen, and water.

complete metamorphosis: the four-stage development process of an insect that includes egg, larva, pupa, and adult

corbicula (pl. corbiculae): a widened portion of the rear legs of female honey bees covered by curved spines where pollen is stored for transport, also known as pollen baskets.

corridor: a band of vegetation, especially one containing flowering plants, which serves to connect patches of habitat, which would otherwise become fragmented. Corridors allow gene flow between populations of bees and help prevent inbreeding.

chronic exposure: continuous or repeated exposure over a long period (greater than 24 hours or much longer)

cross-pollination: fertilization by transfer of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another

cuticle: the waxy outer layer of an insect


dearth: a lack of availability usually referring to nectar or pollen

diatomaceous earth: a porous sedimentary deposit formed from the remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. Dried diatomaceous earth is roughly 80-90% silica, 2-4% alumina, and 0.5-2% iron. It is frequently used by honey packers to filter raw honey and remove pollen, insect parts, dust, and wax bits.

dioecious: species of plants where the male and female reproductive organs are on separate individuals. Pollen from a male plant must be moved to the pistil of a female plant in order to accomplish fertilization.

diploid: having two sets of homologous chromosomes

draw comb: to “draw comb” means to build beeswax combs. “Drawn comb” is beeswax combs that the bees already built. “To draw” is an old term that beekeepers have passed down through the ages. Although it sounds awkward at first, you will get used to it. Some beekeepers describe plastic combs with prefabricated cells as “commercially drawn” comb. Whatever.

drone: a male haploid bee that develops from an unfertilized egg

Dufour’s gland: A gland in the abdomen that, in solitary bees, secretes a substance used for lining and waterproofing nest cell walls. The chemical composition and purpose of the secretion varies with the species.


ecology: the study of plants and animals in relation to their physical and biological surroundings.

EHB: European honey bee

eke: a very shallow super designed to provide extra room for things such as feeders, treatments, upper entrances, and absorbent or insulating material. The word comes from the verb “to eke” as in “I need to eke out some extra space.”

endangered species: a plant or animal species that is declining to the extent that it may become extinct unless protected by law or regulation.

endemic species: a species whose natural occurrence is confined to a certain region and whose distribution is relatively limited.

endotoxin: a toxin secreted by certain bacteria that is released into the surrounding environment only when it dies.

enzyme: a protein with specific characteristics that allow it to aid certain chemical reactions

exine: the outer covering of pollen grains, often containing sporopollenin

exocrine: a gland that secretes externally through a duct


flow: the presence of large amounts of nectar or pollen, usually used in reference to a particular plant species, as in “a good maple flow”

foraging: the collection by bees of water, nectar, pollen, and propolis from their environment

forb: a non-woody (herbaceous) broad-leaved (not a grass, sedge, or rush) flowering plant. The term usually refers to species growing in fields, prairies, or meadows.

foundation: a commercial product made from beeswax that is used as a starter substrate for bees to build comb. Although not necessary, its use results in evenly-spaced and parallel comb

frame: a rectangular structure, with or without foundation, in which bees build comb. Frames allow combs to be removed for inspection or harvest without damaging the colony

fructose: a monosaccharide (simple sugar) frequently found in honey

fungicide: a chemical designed to kill fungus or mold


Galleria mellonella: the science name for the larger wax moth, a pest of honey bee hives and stored wax combs

grafting: the manual transfer of eggs or young larvae from a brood comb into queen cups

granulated honey: another term for crystallized honey

guttation: The exudation of water from leaves because of root pressure.


haploid: having only one set of chromosomes

hemimetabolism: incomplete metamorphosis. A hemimetabolous (or paurometabolous) insect goes through three life stages including egg, nymph, and adult. Because the nymph stage gets larger after every molt but generally looks the same, this is sometimes called gradual metamorphosis.

hemolymph: The circulatory fluid of invertebrate animals that is comparable to blood

herbicide: a chemical designed to kill plants

HFCS abbr. high-fructose corn syrup

high-fructose corn syrup: corn syrup that has undergone enzymatic processing to convert its glucose into fructose and then has been mixed with pure glucose to produce a desired level of sweetness

hive: usually refers to a man-made structure that houses bees, but may also be a synonym for a bee colony

hive stand: a structure used to hold a hive above ground level

hive tool: a metal tool of various types used for beekeeping; may be used for scraping, prying, lifting, and cleaning.

holometabolism: complete metamorphosis. A holometabolous insect has four life stages including egg, larva, pupa, and adult (imago).

honey stomach: an enlargement of the esophagus that is used to collect and transport nectar

honey: nectar that has been dehydrated by the bees so that it contains no more than 17-18% water

honey bound: a condition in which the brood nest has restricted space because all the cells are filled with honey

honeydew: a sweet liquid excreted by aphids, leafhoppers, and some scale insects that is collected by bees, especially in the absence of a good source of nectar.

HMF abbr. hydroxymethylfurfural

hydathode: a specialized leaf structure through which water is discharged from the interior of the leaf to its surface

hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): an organic compound derived from the dehydration of sugars; HMF can form in both honey and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) when heated and is toxic to bees

hymenoptera: an order of insects that includes sawflies, wasps, bees, termites, and ants

hypopharyngeal: in honey bees, a pair of exocrine glands in the head segment which secrete a protein-rich substance used to feed certain categories of bees, including larvae.

hypopus: a nymph stage in certain parasitic mites having well-developed claws for hanging on to a host. As a “hitch-hiker,” the mite can move to a new feeding location or nest site. We find this adaptation in the mason bee parasite known as the “hairy-footed mite” or “pollen mite.”


IAPV: abbr. Israeli acute paralysis virus is one of the many bee viruses carried by Varroa mites.

IGR: abbr. insect growth regulator; an insecticide that works by disrupting the growth or development of an insect by mimicking natural hormones

II: abbr. instrumental insemination

imago: The adult stage of an insect.

insecticide: a chemical designed to kill insects

instar: a stage of larval development between two molts; the first instar occurs after the first molt

integument: an insect’s covering or “skin”


landing board: a small platform at the entrance to a bee hive where honey bees can land before entering the hive. Also called an alighting board.

larva: an immature, grub-like bee intermediate between egg and pupal stages. For derivation see: Latin for beekeepers.

lepidoptera: an order of insects that includes moths and butterflies

long hive: a hive where the frames are all side-by-side instead of stacked vertically

lumen: in biology, the interior space of a tubular structure


mandibles: the jaws of an insect

mast tree: a tree that produces hard or soft edible fruit, such as nuts and berries. A “mast year” is a particularly productive year that yields many flowers and fruits, which benefit bees and other wildlife.

melittology: the study of bees

mesosoma: the middle section of a bee’s body, which supports both the legs and wings. The mesosoma is roughly equivalent to the thorax, except it includes the first abdominal segment, referred to as the propodeum.

metabolite: a substance that is the product of biological changes to another chemical, such as those from pesticides

metasoma: the third section of a bee’s body, roughly equivalent to the abdomen, but lacking the first abdominal segment (propodeum) which is fused to the thorax

miticide: see acaricide

monoculture: the agricultural practice of growing one single crop over a wide area

monolectic: a pollinator that visits only one species of plan


nadir: (used as a verb) to add a bee box under the others, as in Warre beekeeping

nectar: a sweet solution secreted by the glands of plants

nematicide: a chemical designed to kill roundworms

neonicotinoid: a class of insecticides that act on the central nervous system of insects and are chemically similar to nicotine

Nosema apis: a microsporidian parasite of honey bees that lives in the intestines and destroys the epithelial cells of the midgut. It affects honey bee nutrition and shortens the life of worker bees.

nuc: a shortened form of “nucleus hive,” a small brood box designed to contain 2, 3, 4, or 5 frames. These are often used to start new colonies.

nurse bee: a young worker bee that produces brood food and feeds the larvae


oligolectic: a pollinator that visits only a small number of plant species

orientation flight: short flights around the hive taken by young bees in order to prepare for foraging.

over-wintering: the process of survival over winter, during which the bee lives on supplies collected during the spring and summer. Honey bees do not hibernate but actively maintain colony temperatures by clustering.


panicle: a type of inflorescence with a pyramidal, loosely branched flower cluster

papillate: a surface covered with small bumps that are often open (porous) at the top. Certain species of bees have papillate wings, a character that can aid in identification.

parthenogenesis: development from unfertilized eggs. In honey bees, the drones (males) result from parthenogenesis

pellet: the contents of a pollen basket (corbicula)

perennial: lasting a long time, such as a plant that lives more than two years

pesticides: a chemical designed to kill a pest

phenology: the study of periodic plant and animal life cycles and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate

pheromone: a chemical substance released by an animal to induce a response in another animal of the same species

pistil: the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of stigma, style, and ovary

pollen: a powder-like substance produced by the anthers of flowering plants and containing the male gametes

pollen basket: see corbicula

pollen bee: a general term for any bee other than a honey bee.

pollen patty: a mixture of sugar syrup (or honey) and pollen (or pollen substitute) used as a winter source of protein and amino acids

pollen pellet: the ball of pollen carried in a pollen basket (corbicula) on a bee’s hind leg.

pollen substitute: a high-protein powder used as a protein supplement instead of pollen; may contain soy flour, brewer’s yeast, and other products

pollen trap: a device for removing pollen pellets from the corbiculae of incoming bees.

pollenkitt: a sticky substance adhering to the outside surface (exine) of a pollen grain, which aids bees in the collection of pollen

pollination: the movement of pollen from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of a compatible flower

pollinator: an agent that transfers pollen from one flower to another

polyfloral: made from many flower types, such as polyfloral honey

polylectic: pollinators that visit many plant species

prepupa: a stage between the last larval instar and the true pupal stage

proboscis: the multipart “tongue” of a bee used to suck nectar and water

propodeum: the first abdominal segment. It is fused to the thorax and is separated from the rest of the abdomen by a so-called “wasp waist”

propolis: plant resins that are collected by bees and used to seal cracks and soften rough edges in the hive. Also called “bee glue” propolis is high in antimicrobial substances

protein: an organic compound made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain in an order specified by a gene’s DNA sequence

pupa: the stage of development immediately preceding the adult stage. A pupa is sealed under a wax capping where it spins a cocoon and completes development. For derivation see: Latin for beekeepers.

pygidium: an abdominal plate of some female mining bees with a pointed tip. The pygidium is used for compacting soil particles in the nest cells and to apply water-proofing secretions from the Dufour’s gland to the cell walls. Also called the “pygidial plate.”


queen: a fully developed female honey bee. Once mated, the queen stores sperm for as long as three or four years and lays eggs at varying rates throughout the year. Normally, there is just one queen per hive.

queenless: a colony without a mated queen

queenright: a colony with a fully functioning mated queen

quilt: in Warre beekeeping, a box placed above the topmost top bars which contains natural materials such as sawdust, woodchips, straw, or dry leaves that absorb excess hive moisture


refuge: a kink in the main tunnel of some mining bees, such as Andrena armata, where the female can rest out of view of the tunnel entrance.

requeen: a process in which a beekeeper removes the queen from a colony and replaces her with a different one

robber bee: bees that enter weak or dying colonies to steal honey.

robber fly: a type of fly that preys on other invertebrates, including bees. They sometimes mimic the appearance of the bees they prey on.

royal jelly: a glandular secretion originating in the head segments of nurse bees and used to feed the larvae.


SBB: abbr. screened bottom board, but also solid bottom board. Best to just say what you mean.

spermatheca: an organ in the queen’s abdomen where sperm is stored.

stamen: the male (pollen-bearing) part of the flower consisting of the anther and the filament.

steady bee: hover fly [origin: southeastern U.S.].

sublethal dose/concentration: a dose or concentration that induces no statistically significant mortality in the experimental population

sublethal effect: a physiological or behavioral change found in individuals that survive exposure to a pesticide

supersedure: a process in which a colony replaces its queen with a different one

swarm: the reproduction of an entire colony that occurs when a colony splits into two parts. The old part is left with a new queen, and the part that splits off takes the old queen

synergistic: cooperative, working together, interacting, or mutually stimulating. Synergistic toxicity occurs when two pesticides acting together are more toxic than either one acting separately.

systemic pesticide: a pesticide that is absorbed and circulated by a plant or animal so that the plant or animal is toxic to pests that feed on it.


thixotropic: gelatinous. Some types of honey are thixotropic, meaning they form a gel (not crystals) in the comb or in a container. Thixotropic honey becomes liquid again when you stir it or shake it. Examples are heather, manuka, and grapefruit honey.

thorax: the middle region of a bee’s body that supports the wings and legs

tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi): parasites that live in the trachea

trachea: a breathing apparatus comprising branching tubes that conduct oxygen to the inner tissues of the bee

transgenic: an organism that has had genes from another organism inserted into its chromosomes

trophallaxis: direct food transfer between bees


uncapped brood: a beekeeping term for eggs and larvae not covered by a layer of beeswax

uncapping knife: a knife designed to easily remove the cell cappings from frames of honey before extraction

unite: to combine two or more colonies into one

univoltine: insects having one generation per year. Many solitary bees are univoltine.

Varroa mites (Varroa destructor): parasites that feed on the hemolymph of bees and reproduce on the pupae

virgin queen: an unmated queen found in a colony of social insects, including bees, ants, and wasps

viscin: a clear, tasteless, sticky substance made from the sap of flowering plants. In some plants, pollen is held together in clumps or strings with viscin.

walk-away split: a new colony started by putting a few frames of brood, honey, and pollen into a nuc or brood box and allowing the bees to raise their own queen. The brood must contain fertilized eggs or very young larvae in order for the bees to succeed at raising a viable queen, and drones must be available in drone congregation areas for her to mate.

warm way: when frames in the brood box are parallel to the hive opening

wax glands: the four pairs of glands on the underside of the honey bee abdomen where beeswax is secreted. The beeswax is secreted as a liquid that hardens into transparent flakes.

wax moth, greater: the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is common wherever honey bees are found. The larvae burrow into wax combs where they consume cast-off honey bee cocoons, pollen, propolis, and honey.

wax moth, lesser: the lesser wax moth, Achroia grisella, is about 0.5 inches long with a yellow head. They are common throughout the world except in very cold climates. They are a pest of unoccupied wax combs.

wired foundation: pressed wax foundation with wires embedded in the wax to add strength

wired frames: bee hive frames fitted with wires that help to hold sheets of foundation in place

worker: an infertile, diploid female bee adapted to perform a variety of functions in the colony depending on her age and the colony’s needs

worker egg: a fertilized honey bee egg that will grow into a worker. The word also applies to the fertilized eggs of ants, wasps, and other social bees.

xenobiotic: chemical substances that are foreign to a biological system

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  • Thanks for this excellent resource! It would be great to have a search box and/or alphabetical anchors at the top of this page so we didn’t have to scroll so much.

    Also a word request: split. (You have an entry for walkaway split, but not a simple split).

    • Tina,

      Every page has a search box, just click the little magnifying glass in the main menu. The index has alphabetical anchors to hundreds of topics. Also, the splits page has links to many different splits including simple, taranov, vertical, overnight, Mississippi, cut-down, walkway, and swarm control splits. Hope that helps.

  • Hi. I’m writing a children’s book that will include a bee flying. What is the verb of a bee flying/moving its wings in flight? There certainly has to be something besides just saying, “the bee flew across the field,” right? Thanks.

    • Curt,

      Hmm. You’d think there would be such a word, but I can’t think of one. Perhaps you could describe the type of flight. So the bee “flitted” or “careened” or “zoomed.” I know you can do better than those.

  • A great resource as always, Rusty! I am in the process of compiling a vocabulary list for a class that I will be teaching. I have a number of terms on my list for you to consider. I will list them alphabetically below, but first I have to say a few words about a couple of them. 🙂

    festooning — I think you should include this one because it is not only fun to watch bees do it, but I think that it is just plain fun to say that word! haha

    slatted racks — I was surprised not to see this on your list, given that I think you like them as much as I do (or at least you used to).

    robbing/robbing screen/drifting — “robber bee” is listed, but since these are all topics that I personally feel very strong about I have to submit them for you to consider.

    Vairimorpha…. this is the newly proposed genus for Nosema apis and N. ceranae, based on a recent phylogenetic analysis (the type species gets to keep Nosema). Since my background is in vertebrates, l know that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) makes the official decisions for animals… but I have no idea who makes these decisions for Microsporidians. So I don’t know if this change is “official”… but I still think it might be worth adding to your list. And perhaps it might even be an interesting new topic for your blog?
    Here is the citation:

    Tokarev, Y. S., Huang, W., Solter, L. F., Malysh, J. M., Becnel, J. J., & Vossbrinck, C. R. (2020). A formal redefinition of the genera Nosema and Vairimorpha (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and reassignment of species based on molecular phylogenetics. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 169, 107279.

    Here is my full list for you to consider.
    • bait hive/swarm trap
    • bee space
    • bivouac
    • carbohydrate
    • caste
    • cleansing flight
    • combining
    • drone layer
    • DWV/deformed wing virus
    • EFB/European foulbrood
    • festooning
    • forager
    • IPM/integrated pest management
    • laying worker/hopelessly queenless
    • mite wash/alcohol wash
    • robbing/robbing screen/drifting (you have robber bee)
    • scout bees
    • skep
    • slatted racks
    • slumgum
    • smoker
    • split/splitting/divide (you have walk-away split)
    • superorganism
    • uncapping (you have uncapping knife)
    • Vairimorpha
    • waggle dance
    • washboarding
    • winter cluster


    • Thank you for your list, Amy; I find it hard to identify the absence of things. I printed your list and will work on it, but I also have a thick folder of words I’ve collected over the years on my someday list. The vocabulary of beekeepers is surprisingly huge.

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