Is frequent swarming disastrous for bees, or a miracle?

Honey bee colonies reproduce by swarming. Only healthy, vibrant colonies can swarm.

Inside: Beekeepers often misunderstand swarming. Frequent swarming is a sign of strong, fit, lively colonies. Although mismanaged swarms can be a sign of poor beekeeping practices, the swarms themselves are a sign of colony health.

Only healthy colonies can reproduce

What happens to an organism that cannot reproduce? Let’s think about that. If all rabbits stopped their amorous behavior, we would have no more rabbits, not even in Australia. If all cows failed to reproduce, the grocery shelves would be empty of moo juice, as they seem to be now. And what about honey bees? If colonies stopped dividing and swarming, they would circle the drain into oblivion.

Yet beekeepers are always complaining about swarming. “Why did my bees swarm?” they lament. “What did I do wrong?” they moan. “How can I make them stop?” That’s like asking teenagers to stop climbing into the backseat. It’s much easier said than done.

Swarming is colony-wide reproduction

The thing beekeepers need to understand is that swarming is colony-wide reproduction. It is good, natural, and essential. It is what scientists sometimes call the biological imperative, and it must happen if the species is to survive. The idea that only “unhappy” bees swarm is nonsense.

Beekeepers often think of queen mating as “reproduction” and swarming as unacceptable behavior. But with a superorganism, reproduction is a two-step process that includes both queen mating and swarming. Remember, a mated queen cannot produce a colony on her own. A queen needs a cadre of workers and nurses for brood rearing and housekeeping. After all, the queen doesn’t have just one or a few offspring, she will have thousands—great throngs of hungry mouths. Raising them is not something she can do alone.

Controlling the swarming impulse

Beekeepers often frown upon those who lose a swarm. That makes sense because there are plenty of reasons for keeping swarms in check. To begin with, you don’t want to lose all those honey-producing bees. You also don’t want to intimidate neighbors or produce traffic jams when your swarm alights on a lamppost. So yes, you can say a good beekeeper will control swarming, but you can’t say the impulse to swarm is because of beekeeper failure.

In fact, I say the exact opposite. If a colony is growing large and becoming restless to swarm, the beekeeper has done very well indeed. Only fat and healthy colonies will have the energy and numbers needed to reproduce. Conversely, if you don’t want your bees to swarm, keep them sickly and weak. Fading colonies will obediently stay in place until they die.

The mind of the bee doesn’t work like yours

We place too much emphasis on hive conditions that have little to do with the swarming impulse. For example, you might hear that a colony swarmed because the beekeeper didn’t provide enough space or the bees were too crowded. Well, maybe.

Ironically, we’ve all seen colonies with tons of space swarm anyway. Providing more open nest space or more honey storage may delay swarming, but if a colony is hell-bent on swarming, it will backfill the brood nest and place a honey barrier above it, all in an effort to prepare the queen and the colony for the coming divide. By itself, more space will not stop swarming.

Regardless of what you do to the interior of a hive, the swarm instinct endures. It comes from genetic signals that we have little control over. We humans can read and interpret colony behavior, but we can’t control what goes on in the mind of the bee.

That said, experienced beekeepers become adept at reading the signs and controlling the number of swarms that leave. Many of the “cures” for swarming are not cures at all, but simply forms of controlling the timing of swarms. Splits, for example, provide a way of dividing the colony before the colony gets around to it. By properly reading the signs, a good beekeeper loses fewer bees.

Fixing our attitude about swarming

I don’t intend to parse the art of controlling swarms. Thousands of beekeepers will share their tried-and-true methods, some of which work and some not so much. The thing I question is not our response to swarming but our attitude toward it.

Beekeepers would benefit by viewing a swarm not as a curse but as a blessing. Swarming bees are doing what they must. A swarming colony is a healthy colony, a colony with the resources to divide itself in half or in thirds. A swarming colony is like a wolf with pups, producing offspring that spread genetic material from the parents into the world and form a new family which, with any luck, will also reproduce.

Yes, as a beekeeper you must deal with swarms, but understanding their purpose and their value to the species will help you make better management choices, ultimately enabling you to work with the swarm instinct instead of against it.

Honey Bee Suite

Is swarming a curse? A mated queen can't build a colony without lots of help.
A mated queen cannot build a colony without lots of help. Photo by Rusty Burlew.

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  • Always fun when you put things into “lay person” language. PS, We did a split just last week, BUT also have one of those cool “pot thingys” hanging where I hope, should the hive go rogue [I know wrong word] they’ll choose to harbor themselves. Bummer part however is if they do swarm and elect to choose a spot of their own, we have several HUGE standing dead white fir, where the tops snapped out years ago and the woodpeckers have created their own truly amazing hollowed out spots- FIFTY FEET in the air!

      • Swarming never happened to me until this afternoon today. September…seems as if half my hive swarmed off but I was able to “recapture” it. They all are in a box near where they settled on a low branch while I figure out what to do (I only have one hive). Now, a few hours later, my hive seems to be swarming again…at dusk! What the heck is going on? Hoping someone can see this and provide some insight. Btw, I am in SE Michigan. This should not be happening!!!!

        • JimBob,

          You’re right, this should not be happening. It sounds like it is not a typical reproductive swarm. I imagine very few drones remain at this time of year in Michigan. The nights are getting cooler and the days are getting shorter, and your bees know it. I’m wondering if what you’re seeing is absconding of some sort. Absconding occurs when a colony leaves their home in a last-ditch effort to save themselves because things are “not right” at home. But it’s hard to say what that might be.

          Some things that can go wrong are a shortage of stored food, high mite counts, local pesticide use, predators, repeated loud noises, or a shortage of water. I’m sure there are many others. I would do a hive inspection to make sure things look normal inside. The chance of it being a late reproductive swarm is very low but not impossible. Still, I would check very carefully for something that doesn’t look right. Maybe some other readers have some insight on this and can chime in.

  • Oh sure, go ahead and burst one of the few bubbles a guy has. 🙂 PS, I’ve finally got goldenrod sprout, figwort sprouting, buckwheat sprouting and 30 of 300 Lemon Queen sunflowers in the ground with borage planted between the sunflowers. See people do pay attention!

  • I agree with your basic premise. My question is what happens to a give that does not swarm? Does it weaken?

    • Irwin,

      Sometimes, for whatever reason, a colony doesn’t swarm, especially if the queen has a nice strong scent, which tends to inhibit swarming at times. It’s possible it will swarm the following year.

  • Finally someone says it like it is. We spend more time concerned over the very natural act of swarming than we should. Thank you Rusty for giving the other side of the story. We as beekeepers hate to see our bees swarm, yet on the other hand, we are always there to snag that beautiful swarm that emits itself from who knows where. I cannot resist attempting to capture a swarm no matter the size. Even place ads in the local papers suggesting free swarm removal. It sounds funny after reading your article that we place such emphasis on stopping a swarm, but can’t wait to catch them. Honeybees are masters at trapping us into their mysterious world all the while making us believe we know about them than we really do.

  • Hi Rusty,

    Last year I had a swarm take up residence in an empty hive I had out. Free bees are the best bees!

    On a more worrisome note, I read an article in The NY Times that stated Giant Asian Hornets were found in Washington state.

  • I’ll tell ya what, Rusty. Thanks to swarming we’ve added two more colonies to our apiary this year. One came as a cast swarm from a friend in the city (her one hive had a primary swarm and 2 cast swarms, we took the second) and I’m proud to say that I finally caught a “feral” swarm in a trap set up miles away from my apiary (not my own bees, probably somebody else’s).

      • Hello! I live in Western Washington State and just discovered a swarm in one of my short Asian pear trees. It is about 10 inches tall and 6 inches wide. My neighbor used to have someone tending to bees but I think she might have gone and not sure what this behavior is and what I should do about it. My friend suggested I call a bee store and see if they have some contacts to come get the swarm or should I just leave it where it is and let it do its thing? I’m thrilled to have the bees looking so healthy and enjoying the garden. I have a lot of roses and lavender and apple trees. Four acres of plants trees and everything to enjoy I have never seen a swarm in my 16 years here. Thank you for your thoughts. I will try to post a picture. Not sure I can.

  • What is that “pot thingy” that you have a picture of? Is it suppose to entice swarms? How do you make one?

    • Ingrid,

      The pot thingy is called a swarm trap and you can buy them from most beekeeping supply houses. You could make one out of a flower pot, I suspect.

  • Dear Rusty,

    I certainly am happy that you send such thoroughly informative posts about beekeeping. My Warre colony seems to be doing well; one body box and one super.

    I love to watch the various colors of pollen that these painters, very precious creatures, carry into the hive. They are a life force of my garden that I can’t imagine would be complete without the golden bees.

    Have you written books on bees? Could you please give me the names of them and where to acquire them?

    Thank you for the insights into swarming. Well written and with depth.

    Sincerely yours, Frank La Rosa Mazza

  • Thanks, as always for your wisdom and perspective. We knew things were going to get interesting after overwintering 5 out of 5 colonies. Success comes with a price. For us, having run out of equipment in our suburban lot after splitting, buying more equipment and splitting again, we have pretty much been telling the ungrateful bees to “Go, just go!” With the slower than usual build up in TN this season, it seems that making bees is more of a priority than making honey anyway! Other than keeping sick bees, how can you slow them down??? Do you ever remove the queen for a brood break?

    • Dave,

      I have removed the queen for a brood break in the interest of varroa control, but I don’t especially like the idea.

  • Totally off-subject. What do you know about the “murder hornets” from Asia – in NW Washington, so far, that I’m hearing about? Supposedly they attack honey bee hives, decapitate the bees, etc. Living in northern Idaho, I’m concerned.

  • I enjoyed reading this piece, as I keep bees mainly because “ I like bees!” The honey that I get off them is a bonus, and not the reason for keeping them. However, this piece did make me think more about swarming, and makes me feel a little easier, if they “go” as they did last year. I had no honey from them last year, but hope that I may in 2020. I do however, like the idea that “my” bees gave it to me!

    I love reading your pieces, thank you.

  • You have got to trick them into believing that they have swarmed when they really haven’t. Shook swarms work well. Sometimes…

  • I KNOW swarming is a sign that a hive is doing well, but I STILL feel guilty about it.  A GOOD beekeeper would have done a better job preventing that.  Plus, we’re also told that all the wild colonies die here, so I have that to feel guilty about as well.
    On the other hand, it is so very amazing to stand in a cloud of swarming bees as they swirl around the bee yard before heading up into the 60-foot trees all around.  

    Beautiful weather here yesterday, with pollen going great guns into my two overwinter hives. I was able to split into my two deadouts, so now I just have to wait and see if those took.  

    Three bees did not respect “social distancing” and stung me. So that makes up for the bee venom immunotherapy shot that got postponed last month.

  • Rusty, very informative! I have a couple questions though. When a colony is throwing after-swarms is it the queen that just emerged that goes with the swarm and does she go the day she emerges, or was there another queen already in the hive a few days old and when the new queen emerged the queen who had already been there then left?

    I’m trying to determine how old the virgin queens might be when they leave the hive. Figuring that queens spend a few days in the hive prior to going on their breeding flight(s) I’m wondering how it works when a colony is throwing after-swarms?

    Thank you!

    • Ron,

      Generally, a virgin goes with an afterswarm and then mates after settling in a new place. It’s a risky business, because if she doesn’t succeed, the swarm is toast.

  • In Thailand A. cerana, the Asiatic honey bee behaves considerably differently than A. mellifera – it is difficult to impossible for bee keepers to “manage” their native bee. A. cerana reproduces by swarming. Multiple queens are produced. The hive divides and queens abscond. Seasonal fluctuations in nectar flow are dramatic with vast areas in dearth for months at a time. This is exacerbated by a lack of floral diversity due to ubiquitous rubber and palm oil plantations. Sitting out in early morning and hearing bees “return” is an amazing experience. The intensity of sound is crazy. It hits you immediately “they are back!”. Often flying directly to an old hive box or a nearby tree. They either stay or move on. You hope the swarm stays. After all it is not easy plant and nurture “bee-friendly” flowers and shrubs in a country where the dry-season extends 5-months.

  • I split each of my six hives, minus one, a few weeks back. The one I didn’t split just now swarmed to the top of a tree outside my second-story bedroom. These wouldn’t be reachable by ladder. I remembered stories I’ve heard of tanging (beating on pans), and decided this would make a great test, mostly because I could stand away from the window where my neighbors wouldn’t be able to see me!

    Well, it worked! They all flew back to the hive. My panic-y research is now telling me I should have put a new deep for them to “return” to. I didn’t do that, so I’ll just try to split them this evening when I’m done “working” from home.

    Anyway, I’ve been keeping bees for about ten years now, and I learn something new (old?!) every day!

  • another great thread Rusty..

    1) a dead hive never swarms but a healthy one almost always does. 2) I seem to recall Seally and others have done basic research on the survival rate of swarms (seems like the numbers are from 12 to 24%) < which is a good reason to install swarm traps.

    There is a long list of reasons a hive swarms but often overlooked is the slowly decreasing level of GMP in older queens. GMP is fundamentally the glue that keeps the worker population together. Once a hive outgrows the GMP footprint the hive invariable goes into swarm mode. GMP is initially thought to be associated with how successful the queen was in mating and can be casually estimated by the size of her retinue. The bigger the retinue the more GMP she is producing.

    Gene in Central Texas…

  • Hi Rusty – I have been very indebted to your anti-forum site and really value your guidance. We are in our 5th year of beekeeping in CT that has been an adventure of successes and failures. My previous two hives both died the previous winter so last year we replaced them with Carniolans which I have been most successful with here in the damp cold of the CT highlands. I was very dedicated to them all through 2019 and we had a mild winter. Treated for mites and fed them weekly with a top jar placed right over the winter ball. Both hives in good form and spring hit early and I saw a huge growth in the A-Hive and upon examinations, they looked healthy.

    Then the hive swarmed last Friday which had never happened to me before. So not being prepared I caught the swarm and put them back into the hive as we had yet another hard frost and snow Friday and Saturday up on our ridge. Sunday and the swarm came out again which we caught again and placed in the new tactical hive. Upon inspection of the original hive, I found 2 supersedure cells that already had the caps cut open (which I understand means new virgin queens in the hive).

    I have not found a queen in the new hive so concerned they can’t survive so tonight we examined the original hive in detail to take some supers that had brood and honey to new hive, like a split. We are novices so are slow to react and it does feel a bit overwhelming. However, the original hive had 3 supersede queen cells that were uncapped, and 2 swarm cells that were capped. These are all new since Sunday!

    I also looked very closely at comb and there didn’t seem to be brood which surprised me b/c earlier in spring there were tons of brood cells and the population exploded. Therefore we didn’t feel we could take any of the frames to split for the new hive and confused about what we should do next. I thought maybe we should take a frame with queen cells but wasn’t sure if that was right and the swarm could make sure she comes out in good shape to produce. I have consulted 2 beekeeping books from CT bee school and watched 3 beekeepers on youtube – all with different guidance so completely confused now. However, I have noted that your approach always seems very logical and holistic. Any guidance you might be able to give would be very welcome – even the withering glance via the computer if I am blundering around doing it all wrong!

  • Hi Rusty,

    This is an unrelated question. I’ve looked in your index and am unable to find anything on one of the most unpleasant of beekeeper tasks: forcing the end of a colony’s life, or shaking out a hive, or clearing out an aggressive population, etc. Have you written about this?

    Unfortunately, I have two laying worker colonies from a split I did a few weeks ago. I had a lot of closed Q cells and was trying to simulate a swarm, even though I was unable to find the queen to do this properly. When I found laying workers a week later it was obvious that there had been no queen. With frames of capped drone brood, I decided to leave them alone until they hatched out so I wouldn’t have to deal with that problem. But the bees are now so aggressive I can’t work anywhere near them.

    So my question is, how do you handle a hot mess like this? Is there a “best” way to deal with frames full of drone brood and/or bringing a colony to a rapid demise?

    Many thanks!

  • Great post. Made me feel a bit better about the gigantic swarm that came from my hive last year after I’d split it. As a suburban beekeeper I was really worried about where they would go and they ended up being collected by another local beekeeper as I was at work. I’m trying to pre empt swarming this year by splitting early – my hive hasn’t got queen cells or cups yet but I think it’s getting busy so going to split this week. Had a very warm spring here in the UK (Cornwall) so need to be on top of things if I can. Problem is bees are always way ahead!

  • Great post Rusty. For me, swarming was a blessing. I wrote to you in January to ask about my bees that had disappeared suddenly. I figured I would wait till nicer weather to dismantle the hive and store it for next spring when I planned to start over. Well, yesterday was a beautiful day, but when I went out to take it down, I discovered it was bustling with activity. Yeah!

  • Rusty, I live in Oregon near Mt. Hood and we have had a lot of rain and cold temps since I got my nucs in April. My question is, with screened bottoms on the hives, shouldn’t that keep the bees from getting too wet and drowning?

  • Thank you for the insight, Rusty. My local “Bee Mentor” came by this morning and here is what we pieced together… first, the small swarm I had captured was gone…even though I had them in a medium super box with a board on the bottom and topped with a board and a brick. Mystery how they “got away”. According to my friend “they found a way”. Given what we learned at my hive I say you are correct… my girls fled the hive, with a new queen or queenless, like the Jedi rebels fleeing the Empire…because my hive was being robbed! This morning there was a huge cloud of bees around my hive going in and going out. When we checked there was only a little honey left, the robbers had it all…16 frames worth. My hive had been weak all summer and we deduced that my queen had died (since there was very very little capped brood) or she had been killed in the robbing and a small remnant had escaped…which was the swarm I had momentarily captured. So…now I am without any honey to harvest, no bees, and deciding whether to continue next year with a new nuc or hang it up. I’ll have all winter to decide. What a turn of events!

    • JimBob,

      If it’s any consolation, it’s all part of beekeeping and every beekeeper has losses at some point. Just think how much you learned this year! I hope you try again.

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