wild bees and native bees

Who’s to blame, masons or carpenters?

When I was a kid my mom waged war on carpenter bees. She had purchased a circular picnic table made from thick redwood boards. The carpenter bees liked to set up shop on the perimeter of this table and drill straight in from the side. I remember my mom running outside with a flyswatter dozens of times a day, trying to rid herself of these destructive pests.

But I always kind of liked the holes. They felt as smooth as the inside of a seashell and were large enough to swallow my small finger. I thought they were cool because I couldn’t understand how a little bee could do that.

It turns out that carpenter bees use their mandibles to dig out and smooth the tunnels in which they will lay eggs. They do not eat the wood but may use the saw dust to build partitions between each chamber that contains an egg and a provision of pollen mixed with nectar. The holes are about a half-inch (1.25 cm) across and run 6-7 inches (15-18 cm) long. Sometimes more than one bee uses the main hole and each builds a tunnel that branches off inside the boards where you can’t see them. From a human point of view, this is probably not the highest and best use of your picnic table—but it’s really kind of awesome.

Carpenter bees will drill in trees, shingles, soffits, fascia, porch rails, eaves, decks, siding, and lawn chairs. They have preference for unfinished wood, but in a pinch will use pretty much anything they can find. Although most of the carpenter bees are solitary, they tend to live in proximity to each other, so you may see groups of them munching on your real estate investments, consuming your equity.

After the holes are drilled, the female provisions the nest, lays her eggs, and seals it up. The young emerge 5 to 7 weeks later and spend the rest of the summer eating, pollinating, and preparing for winter. Both the male and female bees overwinter as adults. Rather than drilling again, they clean out a previously excavated hole and hibernate there until spring.

Unfortunately, bees that nest in pre-drilled holes—such as mason bees—often get blamed for the holes that carpenter bees or other creatures build. Sadly, I’ve seen folks kill mason bees thinking they were responsible for the damage.

Carpenter bees are larger than mason bees; some are the size of bumble bees, some a bit smaller. But carpenters have a smooth—rather than a hairy—abdomen. Then too, bumble bees are often seen coming out of underground nests, whereas carpenter bees are seen hanging around wooden objects—usually treasured and/or expensive wooden objects.

The genus name for the nearly 500 species of carpenter bees is Xylocopa. According to Wikipedia this word comes from the ancient Greek for woodcutter. In the United States five species are prevalent, two on the east coast and three on the west coast. Both carpenters and masons are excellent pollinators so don’t kill either kind. If you have carpenters, provide some unpainted wood and try to guide them in that direction.


Carpenter bee showing smooth abdomen. Flickr photo by Anita Rust.


Carpenter bees defecate before entering the nest. Flickr photo by Tobyotter.


  • I have business pest control over 10 years.
    I have agreed totally.
    Thanks for easy and good explain.

    Carpenter bee is pest, mason bee is not.

  • I know this is an old article, but maybe you still notice comments on it. 😉 We have quite a few carpenter bees who live in the eaves of our chicken house. This past week we’ve noticed 5 of them, dead or dying on the ground. Is it normal for the overwintered adults to die off in the spring? None of the life cycle discussions I could find talk about what happens with the older bees.

    • Pat,

      My book says that both males and females my overwinter. In the spring, they mate and the females begin to nest and the males die by the end of May. Are your dead ones male?

      • After learning to to tell male from female (Yay, new skill!), of the two dead ones I can still find, one is male and one is female. The live ones are showing what looks like is mating behavior – hovering in one area, staking out the existing nests, gathering pollen, so I will assume this is a normal life cycle event. If I find any more dead ones, I will be sure to check the sex.

  • The back of our house and eaves are sided with pecky cedar, we have multiple carpenter bees, and I love them. They are gentle and curious and totally non-aggressive. They will hover and look at me. I am very sad that people want to kill them. We need all bees. Please don’t kill them.

  • I am on Amazon right now looking for a bee house for carpenter bees that emerge every year from under the eaves of my shed. I need to paint and want to provide a new condo for them.

    • Carl,

      You won’t’ get carpenter bees to live in a bee house. They like to drill in wood and make long, complex galleries to nest in. Did you try painting your eaves? That usually works.

  • I’d like to “relocate” our carpenter bees. We were going to buy bee houses, but can’t find anything for carpenter bees, just mason bees. We love to have the bees around, but we own a log house and they are really doing damage to the logs.

    Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

    • Linda,

      Mason bees won’t use bee houses because they like to burrow in wood and design the interior themselves. Some say the best way to discourage them is to put out other wood for them to use, but I don’t know if that would work well around a log home. You may have to buy a carpenter bee trap which, unfortunately, will kill them.

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