water for bees

Bees and water: the ladies drink for free

Honey bee drinking from a hose bibb. Rusty Burlew

Although we remember to water our lawns, dogs, and horses, we sometimes forget our bees need water, too.

Who doesn’t love watching a honey bee drink, its complex tongue exploring the surface of a leaf or wet rock? Beekeepers the world over have designed watering holes where bees can belly up for afternoon refreshment. Some of these devices are small and unobtrusive, while others are works of art, astounding in their originality.

This article first appeared in American Bee Journal, Volume 162 No. 3, February 2022, pp. 281-285.

Life on Earth depends on water. Even marginal life forms like viruses need water, something they can hijack from a host cell. When you examine the physical and chemical properties of water, you can see why it became the centerpiece of life. Water is perfectly structured for dissolving many chemicals, thus enabling a fantastic number of reactions to occur. And in its liquid form, water can easily channel the newly formed molecules wherever they need to go.

Although we have no trouble remembering to provide water for our pets and livestock, something about insects makes us forget. At least temporarily. Water may never enter our beekeeper minds until the neighbors complain about bees in their dog dish, swimming pool, or on the hose bibb they just grabbed with memorable results.

How honey bees use water

An individual insect doesn’t need much water, but a colony of six leggers requires a substantial amount. And when that colony uses water for purposes other than direct consumption, the volume can be mindboggling. A fully functioning honey bee colony has an extraordinary water demand. The usage varies with seasonal activities, population levels, air temperature, and humidity.

A continuous supply is needed for basic life functions such as digestion, circulation, distribution of nutrients, waste removal, thermoregulation, and internal homeostasis. In addition, a colony uses water for raising its young and maintaining a livable space. For example, bees use water to dilute honey or sugar so it can be easily consumed by larval bees. Nurse bees that are actively producing royal jelly need water to keep their glandular secretions flowing. Water also keeps the brood nest humid enough to prevent larval desiccation and cool enough to prevent bee death and comb slumping.

This hose was slowly dripping, attracting a ball of thirsty bees. If the water contained chlorine, it was likely an easy find. Pixabay photo.
This hose was slowly dripping, attracting a ball of thirsty bees. If the water contained chlorine, it was likely an easy find. Pixabay photo.

Water demand in bee colonies

The actual amount of water used by individuals or by an entire colony is difficult to calculate because of all the variables. For example, nectar is a primary source of water, but the amount of water varies with the source. Nectars with high sugar content provide less water than low-sugar nectars, but low-sugar nectars are collected less frequently.

Honey bees can absorb some water from nectar while they carry and process it, but how much is difficult to say. Because it is so onerous to measure, water from nectar is generally not calculated into usage estimates.

Another confusing aspect is water usage in overwintering colonies. Honey bees often recycle water by consuming condensate within the hive. Part of this accumulation may come from outside air, part is from honey bee respiration, and part may be from liquid feed or honey. Even rain and snow, leaking through cracks and openings, can add to the supply.

Despite the difficulties, some researchers have calculated estimates of usage. One popular paper estimates a normal colony will need about 44 pounds per year — about 5.3 gallons — added to whatever the bees extract from nectar.1

When enough is enough

House bees regulate how much water foragers bring in. If a house bee refuses to unload a water carrier — or does it too slowly — the water carrier will cease collecting. On the other hand, if the water is offloaded quickly, the forager will fetch another load. It’s a simple matter of supply and demand: Lots of supply means little demand and vice versa.2

The water carriers usually disperse their payload to many house bees. Part of the water may be absorbed by thirsty workers or shared as necessary. If the hive interior becomes too hot, workers spread water on capped cells or on the edges of open cells where it can be used to cool the hive.

Bees always need a safe place to stand so they don’t fall into the water and drown. Things that float work well, as do stones or the sides of a container. Pixabay photo.
Bees always need a safe place to stand so they don’t fall into the water and drown. Things that float work well, as do stones or the sides of a container. Pixabay photo.

Evaporative cooling

The amount of cooling needed inside a hive will vary drastically with the climate, the size of the colony, and the amount of sun exposure. However, experiments have shown that honey bees are magicians at maintaining proper hive temperatures as long as they have a steady source of water for evaporative cooling.

Swamp coolers and air conditioners use the principle of evaporative cooling, but honey bees had it nailed long before the idea ever crossed a human mind. For a quick refresher on what evaporative cooling is, just imagine yourself stepping out of a warm shower into a cold room. Brrr! Even if the bathroom is warm according to the thermometer, you can feel your teeth chattering in a matter of seconds.3

Water molecules jiggle faster as they get warmer. The molecules in a cube of ice are virtually locked in place, while those in water move around freely, but those in water vapor dance and gyrate like crazy. Heat is the motivator, the energy that makes the molecules shimmy.

In a drop of water, the molecules with sufficient heat are the ones that escape into the atmosphere and become vapor — the stuff that fogs your bathroom mirror. So when you expose your wet body to the air, the warmest molecules decamp first. But when they leave, they take their heat with them, meaning the average temperature of the remaining water plummets, making you shiver.

Now your body is warmer than your skin. In order to reach equilibrium, heat leaves your body and moves into the cold droplets, a loss that makes you feel even colder. So what do you do? Between shudders, you grab a towel and pat yourself dry. With no more drops to evaporate, you soon feel normal again. The entire process is very cool indeed.

Cooling in the hive

To cool the hive interior, the bees spread water on the combs or attach droplets of water to the frames. Then they fan. The fanning speeds evaporation, and since evaporation carries away the hottest molecules first, the entire hive gets cooler. The fanning also increases the humidity, necessary to keep the larvae hydrated. When the water is gone, the bees add more and continue the process.

In “emergency” conditions, when high temperatures threatened to melt the combs or kill the brood, worker bees will unload water carriers before nectar or pollen carriers. Honey bees are skilled at cooling, so colonies placed in super-heated environments can reliably keep their hives cool as long as they have a constant supply of water.

However, trouble can occur when bees run short. Truckloads of bees exposed to drying highway air or queens enclosed in shipping cages can easily run dry. Whenever you transport bees, providing water is job one.

Slimy water attracts bees, probably because of the scent of algae. Pixabay photo.
Slimy water attracts bees, probably because of the scent of algae. Pixabay photo.

How do honey bees find water?

Although honey bee eyesight is extraordinary for finding flowers, navigating long distances, and evading predators, it is less effective for finding water. Recent research shows that foraging honey bees respond more to the contrast between colors rather than the colors themselves. According to Adrian Horridge, a specialist in insect vision, “Bees locate and measure amounts of blue in areas and, separately, quantities of green contrast at edges, and the angle between them.”4

Since water sources can be any color based on what’s beneath them, and because they often lack contrasting edges, visually searching for water is likely not effective for bees. Instead, they use their sense of smell. Odor receptors, especially those in the feet and antennae, sample the environment for something to drink.

Often, a bee’s choice of water is unappealing to us. The rim of a wet flower pot, a spongy area in the lawn, a drip irrigation emitter, or a splatter of dog pee work just fine. A bee’s affinity for water with “stuff” in it is likely because of the scent of the stuff. The odoriferous infusion is what the bees detect and what attracts them to the source.

As the natural world would have it, the soup the bees select often contains minerals they need in their diets, such as phosphorous, potassium, and salt. These and other micronutrients may be lacking from the various pollen and nectar sources they are using. In a way, a slurp of dirty water is like chasing a vitamin pill with a sip of tea: All your missing nutrients slide down the hatch without swallowing a single Brussels sprout.

Sipping algae through a straw

Nothing, it seems, attracts honey bees like the aroma of algae. Although algae-laden water isn’t something humans prefer, when you examine the places bees like to slurp, you can usually find algae in the mix.

Around my home, bees like the seepage that leaks out of forest slopes. The water gathers in rivulets that draw lazy zigzags across the logging roads, wetting the dust. Where it intersects with sunshine, small tendrils of green slime wave in the meandering water or grow in mossy layers on the semi-submerged stones. This warm chartreuse beverage is the honey bees’ cocktail of choice. They simply insert their own built-in straw.

Slimy layers thrive on the aforementioned hose bibbs, birdbaths, and flower pots. They also show up in koi ponds, pet dishes, water troughs, rain gutters, splash blocks, and compost piles. The water in these attractive beverage bars might be impossible for a fast-flying bee to see, but their keen sense of smell makes up for any deficit of vision.

Mossy areas are bee favorites because moss holds lots of water and stays wet for long periods. Pixabay photo.
Mossy areas are bee favorites because moss holds lots of water and stays wet for long periods. Pixabay photo.

Scent as a signal

Researchers have found that honey bees in desert areas often mark their watering holes with Nasonov pheromone, a tool that is not normally used for flagging caches of pollen, nectar, or resin.5 Since desert environments don’t support many algae, honey bees may use the Nasonov pheromone to help their sister bees find a rewarding water source.

Other scents that seem to attract honey bees to water include chlorine and salt. Both chlorinated and salted pool water are great honey bee attractants, preferences that are probably learned by association. Once a bee finds a swimming pool, she can recruit other water foragers to the source by sharing a scented sample. Many beekeepers report that once honey bees become attuned to the odor of chlorine, they will even sip from bleached laundry hanging on a clothesline.

Saltwater pools are especially attractive. Although we like to pretend that salt is the enemy, all animals need salt to survive. Don’t be afraid to add a pinch of salt to your water source, especially if salt is not abundant in your landscape. Some beekeepers like to use mineral salts that are sold in the pet store as “bunny wheels.” You can crush them with a hammer and add a bit to your water source. Just a tad can add a variety of minerals to a bee’s diet.6

First the water, then the bees

For beekeepers living in an urban or suburban environment, providing a water supply for bees should be a priority. Ideally, a system should be in place before your first bees arrive. The reason is simple: Your neighborhood is likely filled with various wet, slimy things, and at least one owner of a pool, dog dish, or flower pot won’t want to share it with bees.

Unfortunately, the time gap between establishing a hive and the first neighbor complaint can be costly. Why? Because once honey bees have selected a convenient watering hole, changing their minds can be tricky — or downright impossible. Reasoning with even one honey bee can frustrate the best of us, let alone a whole colony. It is much easier to provide water right from the git-go than to attempt wholesale retraining.

Marbles in a dish make a colorful and attractive watering hole with plenty of places to perch. Some sugar or a drop of essential oil helps bees find the source. Photo by Rusty Burlew.
Marbles in a dish make a colorful and attractive watering hole with plenty of places to perch. Some sugar or a drop of essential oil helps bees find the source. Photo by Rusty Burlew.

The water carriers

Water-carrying bees make many trips per day, so a source that is convenient will maximize efficiency. Although dozens of how-to books recommend a “clean source of fresh water,” your bees may ignore such a thing. Most favor water that smells green or industrial.

To keep your bees from searching for water, design a source close to home. Lots of people use entrance feeders filled with water. That’s a great place to start because it’s convenient for the colony. If it runs dry, though, they will soon be on the lookout for alternatives. Other beekeepers like to set up drip systems that allow water to leak into a nearby garden area. Some like to set out containers with pebbles, marbles, corks, or floating sticks that give the bees a safe place to sit while they drink.

Any of these systems will work as long as you provide them before your bees develop bad habits. As with many other aspects of beekeeping, it doesn’t take much time to set up a watering station, but timing is everything.

Pull a switcheroo

If you screw up on this point, here are some tricks that sometimes work on some bees. Short of draining your neighbor’s pool or moving to Timbuktu, there is no sure-fire cure for misbehaving bees. Nevertheless, here are some ideas that may be worth a try:

  • Set out stone-filled pans of water laced with sugar and essential oil. Just a drop of an oil such as anise or tea tree will help the bees find your water source and the sugar will keep them interested. If they fancy your alternative source, remove both the sugar and the oil after a few days.
  • Instead of sugar and water, some beekeepers like to use salted or chlorinated water, similar to what the bees are accustomed to.
  • Set out flower pots full of wet potting soil. Something about the earthy odor of fresh potting soil drives them to drink.
  • Wet concrete, both set and unset, is highly attractive to bees, perhaps because of the various minerals. Plain wet sand is also a favorite.
  • Plant a nearby garden of lamb’s ear. Not only do honey bees like the flowers, but the hairy leaves hold a treasure trove of water that is easy to forage and stays wet for hours.

The epitome of watering devices

Years ago, I visited a watering device at the Oak Creek Center for Urban Horticulture in Corvallis, Oregon. I fell in love with it. It is huge because it serves a large agricultural area, but a smaller version would be fun to build just about anywhere:

  • Water flows into the system from a drip irrigation line. A hose runs up the side of the structure and into a fat bamboo cane that stretches across the width. Holes fitted with drip emitters appear at regular intervals along the length of bamboo.
  • The water seeps from the emitters and drips from the bamboo into a trough filled with living moss.
  • Overflow from the moss drips down the sides of the stacked rocks, which remain wet throughout the summer. A bed of rocks on the ground beneath the structure drains the excess water.

When I visited this structure, bees were all over it — honey bees and dozens of other species as well. But the bees were not alone. Flies, wasps, butterflies, and things I can’t name mingled with the bees.

The different species congregated in their favorite areas. Some liked the moss, some chose the stacked rocks, and some liked the ground beneath. A phalanx of honey bees waited at the emitters, making them first in line.

I didn’t want to leave this structure. The collection of insect life was spellbinding and protean, changing with the sunlight, the nectar flow, and the temperature. The water feature I envision building will be similar but smaller, about four feet tall and two feet wide. Maybe, if I ever get around to it.

You can have fun watching bees drink regardless of the watering hole you build. But give it a try. They are fun to watch and you are bound to learn something in the process.

Rusty Burlew
Honey Bee Suite

Water leaking from drip emitters slowly soaks the mossy trough. The overflow wets the vertical rocks and eventually falls to the stones piled beneath the structure. Different species have favorite spots where they prefer to drink. Photo by Rusty Burlew.
Water leaking from drip emitters slowly soaks the mossy trough. The overflow wets the vertical rocks and eventually falls to the stones piled beneath the structure. Different species have favorite spots where they prefer to drink. Photo by Rusty Burlew.

Notes and References

  1. Herbert Jr EW and Hill DA. 2015. “Honey Bee Nutrition” in JM Graham (Ed) The Hive and the Honey Bee (p 252). Hamilton, IL: Dadant & Sons, Inc.
  1. Childs C. 2020. The Way to Water. 2 Million Blossoms 1:1 pp 8-12.
  1. I made the mistake of asking my resident engineer how an air conditioner works. Now my desk labors beneath diagrams of condenser coils, evaporators, compressors, atomized liquids, and equations sprinkled with Qs. I decided it was an act of kindness to spare you the details and stick with cold showers.
  1. Horridge A. 2018. Bee Vision is Totally Different. American Bee Journal 158:1 pp.65-67.
  1. Winston ML 1987. The Biology of the Honey Bee (p 132-133)
  1. Each time I see bees drinking from a swimming pool, I wonder if pool paint is related to pool popularity. Considering how attractive blue is to bees, perhaps both vision and smell play a part in attracting honey bees.

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  • We’re low-tech here with the bees utilizing our farm pond’s sand beach, lining up at water’s edge. When the grands were younger they’d warn their friends to be careful because “grandma’s bees were getting a drink.” This year’s favorite watering hole seems to be a birdbath that I dumped a bunch of old seashells into.

  • Thank you for the email! I always learn something. I have 2 large ceramic antique crocks in my garden filled with water. ( I have to empty them and turn them upside-down in winter so they do on crack – I live in Up-State NY) In each one – I have an Amazon floating solar fountain. I also have several water plants growing in the crocks. The bees really like the water lettuce. If the bees do not visit enough – I take a pool noodle and cut it into thin slices – place those slices in the open water areas away from the fountain and they love it !!

  • Rusty:

    As usual, excellent article.

    Last year, I had trouble with my bees going into the neighbour’s pool. I put up a small kiddie pool near the edge of my property with a towel draped from one side to the other. The towel wicked up the water to the top edge of the pool.

    I borrowed some chlorine from the neighbour to put in the pool. They would land on the towel on the edge of the pool and slurp away. Within a couple of days, I had a highway of bees going from my hives to the pool. The neighbour no longer had any bees show up.

    This year, I have not been able to get the formula right. While he hasn’t been getting many bees, he is getting some. My pool has not worked so well.

    Thanks for the suggestion of sugar water and essential oils. I think I will try that to see if I can entice them in. I am sure once I have them coming in, they will keep coming as it is so easy for them to get without any danger of them drowning.


  • Is that 5 gallons a year number correct? I thought the number was much higher.

    Could be just my location, but I’m reading numbers that say about 100 gallons/year.

    • Becca,

      I just checked several more sources. I think the key is whether the calculations include the water in nectar, which can make a huge difference. As I pointed out above, the five-gallon number was in addition to the water in the nectar. Nectar ranges from 50 to 90 percent water, depending on the species and the time of day. But the water demand in a hive is also dependent on things like colony size, season, location, humidity, type of flowers being foraged, distance to forage, wind, daily temperature, and time of year. Too much to calculate with any precision.

      One source estimated a total usage (including the water found in nectar) to be a quart per day at the peak, which is 91 gallons per year (about 760 pounds) if all days were peak days. That number is closer to your 100 gallons/year estimate.

      • Yes, that’s the one I saw in my copy of The Hive and the Honey Bee. Although our area of Florida is cooler than a lot of the interior southern states, I figured we were closer to peak water requirements for most of the year. I will tell you that years ago, I came across a figure of 7 gallons/day!! No idea on the source though.

  • Thanks, Rusty! Long-time follower, first-time commenter. My water-hole setup: half wine barrel with plastic liner. “Planted” with Azolla, which is replaced by mail-order when needed, to provide a drown-proof walking surface that’s easily penetrated. A salt shaker with paper towel soaked in Lemongrass Oil is left below the barrel if/when bees drift away to other sources, and within a day or two, they’re back! Mosquito dunk used monthly to prevent the bad guys.

  • I think you meant “This article first appeared in American Bee Journal, Volume 163 No. 3, March 2022, pp. 281-285.” Thanks for posting as we and our bees suffer through another week of daytime temperature highs in the mid-90ºF here in the Piedmont on NC.

    • Geoff,

      Thanks. Indeed, the month was wrong, but the volume is 162, not 163. Just for the record, it is 60ºF here, heavily overcast, and I’m wearing two sweatshirts. I don’t remember ever having a colder spring and summer than we’ve had this year.

  • We temporarily have window air conditioners running, and for the last 2 days, we noticed bees lining up at the bottom edge, where the condensate collects from the coils. It ought to be warm, if not hot, and it ought to be effectively distilled water (says my own resident engineer). Nevertheless, we have a steady stream of customers.

    I also have a damaged plastic pot of severely heat-damaged mint, so I have it sitting on the front porch in a tray while I try to revive it. Got a few ladies hanging around the drainage holes with their faces deep in the dirt. I saw this happen the first year I planted blueberries, too – the nursery fertilized soil was a very popular attraction.

    We HAVE a small pond, containing algae, fed by a year-round spring, so I don’t know why they are suddenly so desperate. But I’m taking the hint, and setting out a large clay tray with a few rocks in the shade of a tree. The morning sun will catch it and boil it away by noon, so I’m thinking I’ll move it to either the asparagus or cosmos forests.

  • I use an old fire pit “dish” on a stand that I got for free from a neighbor. Plugged the holes, cleaned it up and placed some thin flat rocks across it. Bought a pump for 20 bucks and it’s a waterfall fountain. The bees love it and I attach a hose on a timer so it gets a shot of fresh water every morning. I think the key is that you never run out of water. The bees re-orient so quickly if it runs dry. I wonder if the bees are attracted to the sound or vibration of falling water. I know it is a big attractant for birds.

  • I have recently ‘discovered’ this site and have learned so much – thank you for sharing your expertise and experience.

    You mention that proper humidity levels prevent comb slumping. What do you mean by that?

    • Christina,

      If the humidity is too high, water cannot evaporate because the air cannot hold anymore water. This is why a wet towel dries quickly in the desert but slowly in a damp rainforest. So bees in a humid hive cannot easily cool the brood nest to the proper temperature because, even which all that fanning, the air is too damp to support evaporation. As a result, the brood nest can overheat, or even melt. As it begins to melt, it becomes soft and will sometimes lose its shape and “slump” into a shapeless pile.

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