beeswax

Playing with fire: the reasons we all love beeswax candles

People love beeswax candles for their golden color and rich scent.

Everyone seems to love beeswax candles. Their golden color, rich scent, clean-burning flame, and steady light ignite pleasant memories for many.

Inside: What about beeswax candles make them a treasured part of so many holidays and get-togethers? A comparison of wax types shows why we all love beeswax candles.

Exploring the history and mystery of beeswax candles

Candles illuminate the sentimental moments of our lives. We light them to mark events that bring sublime happiness and those that commemorate sorrow or regret. Think back to the last time you experienced the warm glow of a shimmering flame. Did the scent of burning wax trigger a long-suppressed memory?

This article first appeared in American Bee Journal, Volume 163 No. 2, February 2023, pp. 191-195.

Candles mark birthdays, anniversaries, and holidays. They grace religious celebrations throughout the world, commemorate lost loves, and mark anniversaries of the delightful and horrific that humankind has endured. Candles are equally present at vigils for the deceased and announcements of the newly born.

When I think of candles, I remember romantic dinners, spooky jack-o’-lanterns, and cakes so loaded with candles I couldn’t see the icing. From my college days, I remember thousands of flamelets floating on a darkened lake as the sun tucked beneath the pines. And I recall thrilling hours studying by candlelight as hurricane winds pounded the dorm.

Not all light is equal

In today’s slightly blue LED world, the golden glow of candlelight is more alluring than ever. People seem to crave the saffron incandescence that only a raw flame can provide, the wavelengths humans evolved with. Despite all the advertising hype, something about LED light simply feels “off.” Our feral selves prefer real firelight over the artificial glow of a fancy diode.

Luckily, beekeepers can provide the very best flames available, safe to breathe and lovely to behold. In fact, it’s a perfect time for any beekeeper to add beeswax candles to a table of honey and hand cream. Even if you don’t sell your beeswax candles, they are worth the effort for you, your friends, and your family.

Candlelight celebrations are common at weddings, graduations, indoctrinations, anniversaries, and vigils. Wherever emotions run high, candles may light the occasion.
Candlelight celebrations are common at weddings, graduations, indoctrinations, anniversaries, and vigils. Wherever emotions run high, candles may light the occasion.

Beeswax as fuel

We brought honey bees to North America primarily as a source of fuel. Although honey was nice to have, fuel for candles was essential. Of course, the New World was rich in sources of candlepower, but the first colonists didn’t know what it might be, nor how to collect it. In retrospect, honey bees were a brilliant choice, a self-replicating source of the finest wax.

Throughout history, substances that could provide humans with fuel have been at the center of civilization. Today we worry about the excess burning of fuel, but for most of human history, we burned anything that would ignite. Like any fuel, candles provide light and heat, while they shed carbon dioxide, water vapor, other gasses, and miscellaneous particulates.

Candles and the church

Beeswax candles have long been associated with religious rituals. From early Egyptian times to the present, beeswax candles have been a vital part of far-flung sacred traditions. Some say beeswax flames were brighter than any alternative wax, while others argue that because beeswax produced less smoke, it was less likely to foul priceless paintings and windows. It also kept a large congregation breathing easily in an enclosed space.

Some scholars believe that the use of beeswax goes deeper than its physical properties. For example, the ancient Egyptians believed Ra, the god of the sun, wept tears that transformed into sacred bees that produced honey and wax. To honor the honey bee in medieval times, the only candles allowed inside the walls of many houses of worship were those made of beeswax.

Even today, honey bee lore persists throughout dozens of religious sects. One popular explanation for the sacredness of beeswax lies in its origin. Because beeswax is secreted only by worker bees who are themselves virgins, the beeswax itself is virginal and, thus, pure.

Tallow candles like these were used extensively for generations in Europe as well as North America. Without proper filtration, tallow candles with their low melting point may have an unpleasant odor. They are also smoky and fast-burning.
Tallow candles like these were used extensively for generations in Europe as well as North America. Without proper filtration, tallow candles with their low melting point may have an unpleasant odor. They are also smoky and fast-burning.

Illuminating colonial America

Homemakers in colonial America who needed light for the tedious hours of winter darkness had limited options. The most common choices were candles made from tallow, spermaceti, bayberries, and beeswax.

Tallow from the family farm

During colonial times, tallow was the cheapest and most common candle material in North America and Europe. Made from the rendered fat of family cows, pigs, and sheep, tallow was readily available to many.

To make candles, homemakers dipped wicks made of rushes or twisted flax into cauldrons of melted tallow. Once dipped, they hung the skinny wicks to dry. After they hardened, the wicks were dipped again, an iterative process that gradually fattened the candle into a taper.

The pleasantness of a tallow candle depends on how the fat was rendered. If bits and pieces of meat remained in the tallow, the resulting candles could smell like a long-dead raccoon. Poor families without supplies for repeated sieving could easily face a profoundly reeky winter. The low melting point of tallow (about 99 F) accounts for other complaints, too. Tallow candles smoke easily, drip excessively, and require constant wick trimming to keep them lit.

Spermaceti from whales

First harvested in the 17th century, spermaceti is a wax-like material formed in the head of the sperm whale. The wax must be extracted from the oil by crystallization and treatment with an alkaline solution, an onerous undertaking.

Although it was more expensive and less available than tallow, users treasured it as a superior candle wax because it lacked smell and burned clean. Oddly, the unit of candlepower first defined in the United Kingdom was based on the light produced by a single spermaceti candle of a specific size.

Bayberry: the scent of holidays

Bayberry candles were another staple of colonial households, especially in coastal areas where the berries thrived. The bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica), also known as wax myrtle or candleberry, is a deciduous shrub that grows to 10 feet in height. It produces masses of gray berries the size of peppercorns that are covered with nubbly wax. The wax must be melted from the berries and separated in a tedious process, but the resulting wax is a greenish delight.

Where I grew up in the East, homemakers reserved bayberry candles for special occasions such as Thanksgiving and Christmas. They were extremely expensive — more expensive than beeswax — but they burned clean and smelled like the holidays, festive and warm.

The price of bayberry candles continues to increase as the bayberry’s natural habitat disappears. In some places, bayberry is locally extinct or considered endangered. As a result, many of today’s “bayberry candles” are merely bayberry-scented or contain only a small percentage of authentic bayberry wax. As usual, the buyer must beware.

Beeswax: warm and golden

Today, as in colonial times, we hold beeswax candles in high regard. Among the most expensive candles, we revere them for their scent, high melting point, low smokiness, and rich, golden color.

Like many other families, we always saved our beeswax candles for the holidays, so the scent of warm honey and wax would permeate the house. For me, a beeswax candle is redolent of family get-togethers, heavenly food, and festive music as far back as I can remember. With just a quick sniff, I can feel the snow pelting my cheeks and taste the steaming hot chocolate served before a roaring fire.

The invention of paraffin for candle-making

In modern times, we make most candles of paraffin, a substance refined from crude oil. At the time of its invention in 1830, manufacturers touted paraffin as much cleaner and less pungent than tallow, and cheaper than most other candle waxes.

Depending on its source and processing details, paraffin for candles melts at somewhere around 115–154 F and flashes at 392–464 F. Consumers, especially those accustomed to tallow candles, liked the lower price and the cleaner, more reliable flame. Paraffin was a modern wonder, welcomed by all.

Today, however, many consumers bridle at burning paraffin in an enclosed space. Paraffin flames produce benzene and toluene, both suspected carcinogens, and scented candles may also produce formaldehyde. In addition, paraffin can be smokey, darkening ceilings and walls with a dingy gray cast. It is not surprising that many people are ready to return to beeswax for their cherished family celebrations.

We use beeswax candles to celebrate religious holidays both inside and outside of the church. Their special scent is especially pleasing at family get-togethers.
We use beeswax candles to celebrate religious holidays both inside and outside of the church. Their special scent is especially pleasing at family get-togethers.

The physical properties of beeswax

As beekeepers know, beeswax is enchanting stuff. To begin with, it smells heavenly and has a natural golden color reminiscent of ripening wheat. Beeswax candles are famous for long burn times, a steady flame, and few drips.

The composition of beeswax is variable, depending on its geographic origin. Likewise, the melting point fluctuates within in range of about 144–147 F, although the flash point is around 400 F. Taken together, these properties make it just about perfect for candles.

The beeswax for candles usually comes from cappings. Although relatively clean compared to things like brood wax, it still contains bits of propolis, honey, and pollen. These impurities can cause your candles to snap, crackle, and pop like breakfast cereal, so the wax requires filtering. But the sublime odor of beeswax also results from these contaminants, so the perfect candle wax is a delicate compromise between a tame flame and a seductive smell.

The downside of beeswax candles

The expense of beeswax is a major objection, but certainly not the only one. Although it’s hard to believe, some people find beeswax candles lacking in certain qualities. For those who revel in added fragrance, beeswax does not hold or distribute added scents as well as paraffin. Instead, the scent of beeswax competes with added scents or completely overwhelms them.

A related problem surrounds the color. Those who want to dye candles specific colors find the competition with the golden yellow of beeswax to be objectionable. Like the scent, the color is at least partially a result of impurities. Beeswax can be bleached and super-filtered to remove most of these if that’s what you really want, but it’s probably easier and more economical to use a different wax altogether.

You can make beeswax candles in several ways. These are rolled from sheets of embossed beeswax.
You can make beeswax candles in several ways. These are rolled from sheets of embossed beeswax.

Modern waxes for vegan families

The leaves of the carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera), a native of northeastern Brazil, give us carnauba wax. Since the wax contains no animal products, carnauba candles are popular with vegans.

The problem with carnauba wax is its extremely high melting point, about 180 F. The high heat required to keep a carnauba candle lit often results in an unsteady flame with excessive flickering. As a result, the wax is often mixed with either beeswax or coconut oil to make it softer.

The other popular vegan choice is soy. Soy wax is made by cleaning soybeans and then rolling them into flakes. The flakes are then pressed to extract the oil that must subsequently be hydrogenated. This process saturates some of the fatty acids, making the wax solid at room temperature so we can use it in candles.

The melting point of soy wax is variable, usually about 120-180 F, depending on the additives. On the lower end, soy candles must be made in a container, but with additives, soy can be shaped into pillars. To simplify the process, soy is often mixed with beeswax, paraffin, or palm wax. Blended candles are popular because they distribute scent better than soy alone.

Today, soybean candles are especially popular among vegans and others who prefer not to use beeswax. Soybeans are processed and rolled into flakes before the oil is extracted and hydrogenated.
Today, soybean candles are especially popular among vegans and others who prefer not to use beeswax. Soybeans are processed and rolled into flakes before the oil is extracted and hydrogenated.

Tips for high-quality beeswax candles

I will not presume to teach candle-making because I’m not the right person for the job. You can find excellent blog posts out there that explain exactly how to do it. However, I have some personal observations.

Noisy and noisome candles

Beginners making beeswax candles often have trouble with fizzles and pops. If your candle sputters and smells like refried bees, it’s time to rethink how you clean your wax.

Beeswax needs to be filtered carefully to remove most of the bee appendages, hive debris, and pollen grains. Filtering is a time-consuming and messy process that is easy to cut short simply because it’s not much fun. But if you take shortcuts (as I and many others know from experience) you are highly likely to end up with firecrackers at your dinner party.

Not only do these candles sound scary and smell bad, but they can set your tablecloth on fire. Bee or plant parts hidden in the wax may contain moisture that expands when heated to form little bombs. Or if they don’t explode, they may just burn and form dense tendrils of smoke that curl upward and coat your (previously) white ceiling.

I’m always leery of wasting anything, so when I began making beeswax candles I figured I would filter once, not twice. Although my long amber tapers looked lovely, they were terrifying at mealtime, hissing, snapping, and sizzling between stenchy flare-ups. Everyone at the table focused on the incendiary devices at center stage, rather than on my (truly) delicious meal.

Guttering candles

The term gutter can refer to a channel on the edge of a candle where the melted pool of wax can escape and run down the side of the candle. It can also refer to a candle that has excess melted wax in the center, allowing the flame to “drown” and extinguish. Neither is good.

To prevent guttering, the size of the wick must match the diameter of the candle and be appropriate for the type of wax. For example, a larger diameter candle needs a thicker wick, and wax with a higher melting point needs a thicker wick to assure the candle keeps burning. Before you buy wicks, you can consult charts and tables that provide guidelines.

These resources often discuss the “melt pool,” a term that refers to the amount of liquid wax on top of a burning candle. Ideally, this pool should extend from one side of the candle to the other, edge to edge, and be at least a quarter-inch deep. Waxes like beeswax and carnauba that have a high melting point need more heat to keep the pool liquid, so the wider wick is helpful.

A related problem is “tunneling” where a wick burns a hole down through the center of a candle without ever making an edge-to-edge pool. This comes from a wick that is too small for the type of wax.

Use dedicated equipment

Beekeeping suppliers like Dadant have all the candle-making supplies you need to make perfect beeswax candles. Make sure you also have dedicated wax-working tools like double boilers, strainers, spatulas, and spoons. Don’t use your regular kitchen utensils or you will be in deep trouble with the chef. Wax-working is nothing if not messy.

Consider selling beeswax candles along with your honey offerings. Candles make thoughtful gifts that anyone can use in their own personal way.
Consider selling beeswax candles along with your honey offerings. Candles make thoughtful gifts that anyone can use in their own personal way.

Marketing your homemade candles

If you sell honey to local retailers or directly from a roadside table, consider offering a few beeswax candles, too. They are easy to sell, especially in the fall before the holiday season. And alongside your honey-filled jars and straws, they make an attractive display.

Stress their health properties

Because beeswax candles are more expensive than paraffin candles, be sure to let your customers know that beeswax burns clean, burns slowly, and smells delicious. Many potential buyers will not know how beeswax candles differ from others, so it’s up to you to explain.

You can also emphasize that beeswax does not emit the many toxic chemicals that paraffin does, so you and your family can breathe easily.

Include explanations with the products

Whenever I sell comb honey, I include a business card printed with an explanation of comb honey and serving suggestions. It would be easy to design a card to include with your candles, explaining how bees make the wax and how you make the candles. People love to know the origin of specialty items and they often pass the cards along with the gifts. Explanatory posters or cards may seem like a lot of work, but they will be worth your time in increased sales.

And speaking of gifts, you can sell even more candles if you include some vegan alternatives. Soy candles make a great addition to your offerings. When people are purchasing gifts, they will often buy for multiple people, and some of those people may be vegans.

Soy candles are easy for you to make. Besides your regular candle-making supplies, all you need is soy wax flakes and fragrance oil. The card you include with the purchase can explain that honey bees don’t make soy wax and are not needed for self-pollinating soybeans.

Although no animal labor is exploited in the making of soy candles, honey bees and a variety of native bees enjoy the sweet nectar that soybean flowers produce in abundance. That means your vegan customers can buy soy candles and support bees at the same time.

Begin your wax collection now

Give beeswax candles a try this coming season. Set aside a five-gallon bucket and each time you come across a stray piece of beeswax, toss it in the bucket.

When I first began “bucketing” my beeswax, I thought I would never have enough. But now I have so much, I had to stack the buckets atop each other in my shed. Turning all that wax into golden, fragrant beeswax candles is a to-do on my (incredibly long) bucket list; I just need to get started.

Rusty
Honey Bee Suite

As a kid, I loved putting a candle in a jack-o’-lantern. This fellow graced our house last Halloween. Rusty Burlew
As a kid, I loved putting a candle in a jack-o’-lantern. This fellow graced our house last Halloween. Rusty Burlew

About Me

I backed my love of bee science with a bachelor’s degree in Agronomic Crops and a master’s in Environmental Studies. I write extensively about bees, including a current column in American Bee Journal and past columns in Two Million Blossoms and Bee Craft. I’ve endured multiple courses in melittology and made extensive identifications of North American bees for iNaturalist and other organizations. My master beekeeper certificate issued from U Montana. I’m also an English nerd. More here.

15 Comments

  • My wife has made 10″ and 12″ tapers for gifts for many years. Everyone appreciates receiving handmade craft gifts like this. My wife learned the craft from a friend who teaches homestead skills like spinning, weaving and making candles for lighting. There is definitely a knack to getting those tapers “just right” with the signature drip flourish on the base, marking it as a true hand dipped candle. You are right about how the wax seems to accumulate faster than we can get around to processing it.

    • Tom,

      I think of those buckets frequently, but there’s always something more urgent to get done. However, the description of your wife’s beautiful candles is compelling. Maybe this year…

  • My houseful of cats, dog, and ferrets wish to register their displeasure with your fascinating post, since I just clicked to take a quick look, was distracted by the excellent and informative writing, and the next thing I know I have read the whole thing, am late for evening chores, and being accused of pet-starvation.

  • What wonderful writing and so informative. I love candles, especially beeswax, which are all I burn. If it were not enough that bees provide honey, they also light our way. Thanks, Rusty; as usual, your posts illuminate in many ways.

    • Thank you, Bill. I’m so glad you liked the post.

      “If it were not enough that bees provide honey, they also light our way.” I love that.

  • I’m a beekeeper and have made many for myself and family. The aroma and golden glow is spectacular.

  • If a person enjoyed chewing their cappings wax, but not swallowing it, is that chewed wax still bees wax or has it been pre-digested into something else?

    Asking for a friend.

    • Roberta,

      Tell your “friend” I have no idea. I don’t think humans can digest beeswax at all.

      • Hmm. I think my “friend’s” concern is that since she’s chewing the flavor out of the wax then she’s chewing the beeswax aroma out of her candles. Maybe she should just keep those for her own use.

  • Hi Rusty,

    Since coumaphos is found in beeswax does burning beeswax candles emit unhealthy toxins? Thank you.

    • Mari,

      Sure, it could. But most people melt honey combs (not brood combs) for candle making and coumaphos isn’t used when honey supers are in place. So if the beekeeper is using the products properly, there shouldn’t be an issue with toxins in the candles.

      • Wow. I had never given any thought to the bee’s wax usage affecting the contents of the resulting rendered wax!

  • Wow! This blog beautifully captures the magic of beeswax candles. It explores their captivating qualities, from the soft glow to the delightful scent, making us fall in love with them even more.

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